Mar 29th

For sale Transmitter+intercom+headsets

By Jozinko Sajan

For sale:

- ICOM IC A5 (channel spacing 25kHz) with ICOM powered cable from board network what includes a voltage stabiliser and interference suppressor

- Intercom Pilot PA-200 with VOX, powered by 9V battery (without an interference from alternator) + velcro PTT

- 2pcs headset Pilot P51 with volume control, gel ear pads, microphones to a noisy background

All was flying on my trike.

Video link:

Why I cant give here photos? :) I will send you by email...


Mar 28th

Heated Clothing for trike pilots

By Paul Hamilton

Flying in ther winter can be warm and comfy. Everyone has their own ideas about this. I have tried to simply bundle up and use those heated pads. This helps but does not cut it for a professional trike operation in the winter. I need to stay warm all day and keep my customers warm all day. The only solution I have found the only thing that works for me is heated clothing. Simple.

Here is an excert that I have on my web site for winter flying:

It may seem that it is cold flying in an open cockpit when it is freezing out there. It may appear that winter is not the time to go triking, microlighting, ultralighting powered hang gliding. Let me dispel these misconceptions.


OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA Yes it is cold out there but you can use a modern state of the art heating system used my the military. It is simply heated clothing. I now use heated gloves, boots and vests. Gloves are 22 watts. Boots are 22 watts. Vests are 44 watts. HeatedInsoles That totals 88 watts of heating right near your skin to keep you warm and toasty. heatedVest Imagine trying to hold an 88 watt light bulb, it would burn your hands. This 88 watts is efficiently put where you need it to stay warm.

HeatingCoils We have the technology and can use it. Have looked and tried other systems and chose the Gerbing heated clothing mainly because of the technology plus it is available at the local motorcycle shop so it is easy to get, add or replace as necessary. Other brands probably do a good job also.  Gerbings developed Microwire™ in response to a Department of Defense contract for heated clothing for Special Ops Forces. You will use this to stay warm while you fly. Enough said. Here we show you how we suit up with all the heating clothing to keep you warm.

Check out what you see while flying in the winter. Snow, cold/crisp air - warm and tosty. 

For those do it your selfers how to design your own system.

Mar 22nd

Joy and frustrations of a student pilot

By Bob Lemke


What I would like to solicit from this blog is other's learning experiences along with their mind set. As I type this I've received 9 hours of instruction, 7.5 of those hours in the last three days. The first 1.5 hours was at my CFI's airport, the rest at my hangar/home in my airpark. 


The joy comes from flying again after a 37 years absence. 40 years ago I soloed with 0 hours because back then nobody was doing tandem hang glider flights yet, let alone giving dual instruction. I bought a used Seagull III and three other beginners from work joined me in the quest to learn how to fly. We learned in the Sierra foothills just east of Sacramento, California and on our 2nd outing one of the beginners crashed, destroying the Seagull and placing him in the hospital for 3 weeks. I became a dealer for Seagull to receive better pricing and placed a order for 3 new gliders for us remaining students. When the 3 of us resumed training, instead of the 20 minute drive to that foothill site, we drove 3 hours to a coastal site named Dillon's Beach with a 100' tall sand dune hill. There was a lot of physical effort involved in climbing with our wing in the sand but the reward was launching into a constant sea breeze that elongated our flight time and more importantly the soft sand in the LZ for our beginner pilot landings. With that long drive it was a serious time commitment so we always camped and had two or three days of learning per trip. After many trips we felt we were ready to return to that foothill site and continued training there. Between the 100' sand dune and the 500' high foothill site, all flights were short compared to the time of hiking our gliders up those hills. The time had come for our 1st "altitude" flight at a place north of Clear Lake, California called Elk Mountain with the LZ in the dry creek beds next to the Middle Creek Campground. The launch was 3500' AGL above the LZ. This area is famous for thermals so as low time pilots the three of us launched early morning to insure a 10 minute sled ride to the LZ. That was at least 5 times the air time of the other two sites. All three of us wound up doing what the more experienced pilots predicted, and that was pulling the bar in a bit past minimum sink and flying with more speed, hence a shorter flight. But 10 minutes in the air did give valuable input as to where each of us had set up our hang point CG, and so we could make adjustments on future flights to insure our CG setting would provide minimum sink for hands off the control bar straight and level flight. Getting the right CG proved very important for our next altitude site which was Big Sur. This site was famous for giving that first altitude flight so I was looking forward to that trip already having some altitude flights at Clear Lake. The club I belonged to went to Big Sur every Thanksgiving due to the whales migrating south that time of year. Nothing curls your toes like flying over a pod of whales in a prone position and your wing acts as a sound amplifier when they surface and force air out of their blow hole. It is loud. The club owned a old hot rod 4X4 Ford truck with a 427 and manual transmission that pulled a custom trailer built to accommodate 24 gliders. i know a lot about that truck because when I didn't feel comfortable about conditions on the launch hill, I would drive the truck back down the hill with just my glider on board. This happened more times than I'm willing to admit but hell I was one of the lowest hour pilots in the club and had every intention of surviving my early learning phases to become a higher hour pilot. On one of these Big Sur trips I didn't exercise my previous good judgement and launched above the fog before it had burned off because there was a good size opening in that fog along my proposed flight path. Well I'm sure anyone reading this is going to think what happens after you launch and are flying that VFR path and it closes back in again? You would be correct and I shouldn't have launched because in the time it took me to reach that clearing in the fog, it had closed in. This was why I mentioned how important it was at the Elk Mountain site to properly dial in my CG attach point for hands off minimum sink. When your in a white out that is your only option, remove input to the control bar and experence that feeling of time stretching out, where every 10 seconds feel like a minute. I am however keeping track of the time waiting for a break in the fog because my due west flight path will take me over highway 1 and then the Pacific Ocean. I finally saw a break in the fog and turned towards the opening and once there was relieved to see Highway 1 just west of my position. Total relief but that was short lived because on further observation I had no idea where I was in respect to the LZ and didn't know if I should fly north or south over Highway I. I chose north and that was incorrect, wound up landing 4 miles north of the LZ at the gas station/greasy spoon. After folding my wings I had breakfast wondering how long it would be before the truck/trailer would find me and pick me up. During the course of eating, 3 other pilots landed there to prove I wasn't the only idiot to launch into a sucker hole in the fog and after breaking out of the fog heading the wrong direction.



I got off subject, damn I'm good at that. Well back on subject, these early days of flying lit a fire under my ass (or lit my ass on fire) and 3 years after learning to fly hang gliders I was at my local FBO taking lessons in their Cessna 150 trainer. This was a low budget flying club that even though they had the new 152s, I preferred the old 150 for two reasons, manual flaps vs the slow moving electric, and more important for the budget minded, the 150 only recorded tach time hours unlike the 152 Hobbs time. Lower RPM settings would net more log hours and less billing hours. On this note you are probably aware I'm a budget minded person and as such I'm having some diffculty with time to solo and instruction rates. If memory serves I think the 150 I rented from the club I belonged to and paid monthly dues went for $25 per hour wet and the instructor was an additional $15 per hour. Granted this was 37 years ago. I feel like I'm getting a good rate from my current CFI at $150 per hour in his trike at my hangar/home location. However, time to solo might be different. I don't want or expect to solo at 0 hours like I had no choice in my hang glider. I did solo GA aircraft at 10.8 hours and as a newly minted solo student pilot moved my touch and go's from my 2400' FBO field to a little airstrip my U/L friends were using at 1200' in length. I got to practice short field and spot landings all day at that little strip which was only 3 miles from my home strip. I got pretty good at this and when my club had its Fun Day with flour bomb drop, balloon burst, and spot landing competition I was eager to participate. Only problem was students weren't allowed, so I was bummed. I could understand a low hour student pilot could get into trouble attempting the balloon burst and even the simple flour bomb drop, but spot landings? This is what we practice all the time we are accumulating, not just hours flying straight on cross country flights. I spoke up, the powers to be contacted their insurance agent and the green light was given to allow the students to do spot landings. That was the very first 1st place flying trophy I ever received, still proud to this day.


So this gets me back to the first paragraph, I have 9 hours dual and have the impression from my CFI that my first solo is further away than the 10.8 hours I soloed the 150. I know we need to trust our instructor's judgement as to our flying abilities but input from others would be appreciated. What was your flying experience before trike instruction? How many hours before solo in the trike. How did you feel about your CFI? I really want the good, bad and ugly.


Here is my thoughts on flying. As a little boy I was a tree climber for the perspective of being above the ground and the solitude. As I grew older I would climb mountains for the same reason, to escape the 2D world and enjoy a 3D experience. I will never fly as a means of transportation and as such would never ever fly to a schedule. I'll leave that to the pros. Unlike my hang gliding days when so much time was committed to driving to the flying site and hence a bit of pressure to get some air time even if conditions were less than perfect, now doesn't exist due to my home/hangar fronting a taxiway and just 900' to the active runway. Yep, with no time commitment envolved in getting to the flying site, I have the luxury everyday I wake up to decide if conditions are benign enough to serve my level of experience. Life is good retired at a residental airpark.


Mar 11th

Importing trikes from the US to the UK

By Paul Hamilton

Hey trike pilots in the UK. If I want to import a new trike or a used N Numbered trike to the UK from the USA, does any one know how or if this has been done?

There are four possibilities:

Ultralight 103, new S-LSA ASTM complienent, used S-LSA and used E-LSA. Any ideas, suggestions or contacts are welcome and helpful.

Now that the UK has left the EU, is this helpful for importing US trikes to the UK?

Mar 6th

What is the correct tension on a batten clip

By Rizwan Bukhari


Hi all,


I have a question about batten clip tension. In the past the wing I owned had a bungee or string cords (tensioners).


But now I have clips. The wing I have is a Streak 3 wing from Airborne. I checked in the manual and it talks about detension or tensioning the clips to fix a minor turn in the wing.


But my quetion is when you are putting the wing together for the very first time then how do you know what is the correct tension?


Turning the batten clockwise detensions them and anti clockwise tensions them.


Are all the batten clips suppose to be equal distance out of the batten?


How hard should a batten clip be pushing against the pocket?


These might be very basic questions but I never had a wing with batten clips so any help would be grealy appreciated.





Mar 3rd

Stuffup, gale and fence and sheep.

By Bryan Tuffnell

Take three university students, one car, a bunch of toys, a bad idea, and what do you have? It could be the Cadbury Moro Lake Ohau Spectacular in 1987! One of those weird triathlon thingies that had been fermenting, possibly along with other substances, in the mind of some twisted individual with capitalistic intentions and a morbid sense of humour. Run up the Ohau Skifield, ski down to the carpark, fly (hang glide) to Lake Ohau, windsurf up the lake to the pub, scull a pint. For three engineering students it actually sounded like a good idea! Lets take a week - no, fortnight! - off studying, load up John's 53 Austin 8 with skis, climbing gear, flying gear, windsurfing gear, and beer, and chase those Ohau babes!! Yeah!! And I have this idea for a secret weapon for the race!! It so happens that Bruce Parlane, a skydiving mate of mine who makes parachutes for a living, has built something called a parapente or a paraglider or something.  It has fairly miserable performance apparently - goes down faster than Xaviera Hollander after twenty dollars - but for this race, by crikee, you want to fly something that sinks out of the sky like a polished brick. Besides, it'd be a great new toy to play with.

So John, Deano and I roll into Ohau, coughing and wheezing (John's car leaked black exhaust smoke into the cab) and laid siege on the local establishment. We set up camp on the Ohau airstrip - an imperial mile-long grass strip separated from the highway by a few grazing paddocks. With sheep in them. We cooked on an open fire. Climbed crags. Windsurfed on the bitter glacial waters of the lake. Skied. Flew down to the airstrip at the end of the day, and ran back up for the car. Spent time in the bar, worked on the car exhaust, played the guitar and drank ourselves to sleep late under a blanket of stars. Bars, cars, guitars and stars - I was a true ars man. By golly, life was good. We were unlovable boors, not so much irresponsible as young kiwi blokes with no responsibilities. And then the winds came.

And then the winds came.  It blew an alpine nor'west gale for a day, two days. We couldn't ski, fly, windsurf or climb. It blew a gale. It blew a riot. It blew a revolution. It blew from hell, and it blew the pale eggs of the beast.  etc. etc.

What could we do?  No sports, no girls to chase, beer isn't cheap, and I'm bored...

So here's our heroes, stuck in Ohau, camped out for days in the great nor'wester that blew storm force gales in the lead-up to the Great Cadbury Moro Ohau Spectacular. Frustration is brewing - we were renaissance men who liked our women hot, beer cold and steak rare - in our dreams, at least - and there was nothing to do.  Or was there?

Gottit you guys.  The paraglider... we could tether it to a tree or the back of the car or something... maybe tie it on with twelve feet or so of climbing rope... take turns at having a go in the harness, letting it fly kite-style... in this wind it should easily lift someone of the ground - waddya reckon?

Hey, good call... what can possibly go wrong? Hold my beer while I look for something to tie it to. How about that tree?

Nah, too many branches... the rope might snag... what about that corner fence post... that big one in the corner of the airstrip that keeps the sheep out?  Its pretty solid, and its braced by all that number 8 fencing wire running the length of the strip... should do the trick...

So, we tossed a coin. Deano won. He's a lucky tyke. Trust him to get first dibs.  So Deano gets into the paraglider harness, and John and I struggle to get the glider itself out of the bag and laid flat on the ground as the wind raged. No mean feat in that blast. The rope is connected between the corner fencepost and the paraglider harness, with Deano on board.

On the count of three, John and I fling the flapping canopy into the hurricane, the wind catches it and it snaps into life.  It rapidly plucks Deano off the ground, and flies overhead.  At this point several things occur to us: the wind is CONSIDERABLY more forceful than we had really imagined and was putting a huge strain on the glider, harness and rope; also that now that Deano was 3 metres up in the air we had not really considered how we might bring him down (30 square metres of sail in cyclone-force winds make quite a tow); it might not have been as good an idea as it seemed in the pub; and the whole ensemble, instead of flying "behind" the fencepost at an angle to the ground, is in fact nearly vertically over the fencepost... for a few seconds anyway... Then, the earth around us shuddered, a low moan joined the keening wind, 3 startled faces turned earthwards as, gently at first, but with increasing ease, like a Ducati pulling away from a green light, the fencepost pulls free.  Then Twang!Twang!Twang!Twang!Twang!  All the lighter fenceposts are uplifted by the viagra-like force of the gale, acting via the paraglider, a rapidly deteriorating harness and its now concerned human contents, the 11 mm climbing rope (Hey! Thats MY rope!!!) and a half-dozen strings of that famous number 8 fencing wire, until finally a mile of fence splits the Ohau skyline, anchored finally by the distant corner post at one end and a bright orange sail at the other, and OHNOWADDAWEGONNADONOW??????  Deano is hundreds of feet above the Earth, with a paraglider above him and a fence between his knees and the planet he loves. The paraglider harness is not coping with the strain; and if the final fencepost fails, he's going to be blown downwind over those wires with zillions of volts on them that run between them pylons there. Crap!

$#@$^%^&$$%in' GET ME DOWN!!!!!!  We can't hear the words, but the Deano's message is unmistakable. Oh good grief, Deano is trying to get out of the harness and climb down the fence before the harness rips - well, we can't help that but John, we gotta DO something!!!  We gotta tie that last fencepost to something, ‘cos if that goes Deano is dead meat!!!

So the rescue team swings into action, leaps into the car to try charging the low end of fence. The idea is that maybe we can drive 'up' the fence, pulling it down to the ground with the weight of the car.

Well, that startled the sheep in the paddock behind, and in fright they ran towards the low, tethered end of the fence. Sure enough, one of them (Britney Shears) is soon hopelessly tangled in fence wire. As is John's car.

So John and I are now out of ideas. There's still a gale blowing, a mile of fence in the air tied to a paraglider at one end, with a sheep and a car tangled in the other end, and an intrepid adventurer climbing down the fenceposts. Anyone with a trace of decency would have been deeply concerned about Dean and the sheep. Fortunately John and I didn't have any traces of decency so we watched.

Well, fortunately for us in general and Deano in particular, after a while the wind mercifully dropped and allows Deano, arms wrapped around a fencepost, to reach Mother Earth alive. However, Mother Earth organised it that the sheep, still stuck in the fence, got to experience flight in a couple of the more violent gusts, and apparently Britney didn't enjoy her little flights. She fell free from the fence just as Deano decided 'I can jump from here.'

Maybe it was seeing our mate survive, maybe it was the sheep's brief flight, maybe it was the fence still arcing into the sky beneath the paraglider, maybe it was Deano landing on the sheep. Maybe it was the whole situation, but John and I lose ourselves ingreat gales of hysterical laughter. The three of us were rolling around on the ground, holding our guts, tears streaming down our faces, out of control with laughing so hard. It took ages before we regained enough control to beat a retreat to the bar to drown a mighty thirst, swallow a little humble pie and generally hang one on. Boys, eh?

Post script:  On race day, the wind was so strong that only three of us got on the water to start the windsurfing section. Deano was rescued by boat an hour after starting that section, I went backwards so far that it became a major effort to get back to the car, and John managed to get to the bar by a combination of windsurfing and running.  

Deano bought the pattern for the paraglider from Bruce and founded Pacific Paragliders. John is recovering from a scuba diving accident. I grew up and am now a relaxed, responsible trike pilot. Mostly. So there.


Feb 22nd

NEW Airborne M3 Sport Coming to Sport Aviation Center Reno/Lake Tahoe demos mid March

By Paul Hamilton

The new Airborne M3-Sport upgraded carriage and wing will be delivered to Sport Aviation Center has shipped from Australia and should be ready for demos by about the middle of March. Warren (owner/student) will rent this out for me to give demos in this new model Airborne. 


It has two of the significant improvements I thought were necessary. An off set thrust line and a new strutted wing both shouild get rid of that irritating right rurn problem.

My version of this will have Flycom and no Lynx adapter (unless someone really wants the Lynx)

Call me 775 772 8232 or e mail me  for pricing if you are serious about a purchase.

Here are some details:

M3 Sport

The long anticipated XT-912 M3 Sport is the most recent offering of style, safety and performance from Airborne. Designed and manufactured in Australia the MK3 has added to the long tested performance of the XT-912 series. Improvements across comfort, flight stability, economy and electronics, give the MK3 world leading performance.


XT3-912 / XRS What’s New


Cockpit - New Design

  • Seat design: Seats have been redesigned for function, comfort and wear. Increased leg room and improved footrests make for a more comfortable flight.
  • Soft Sides: Redesigned to allow for full enclosure of the storage area, increased storage area and improved aerodynamics.
  • Cockpit internal: Wider more spacious cockpit for improved comfort and storage.
  • Cockpit External: improved aerodynamics for a more comfortable ride with improved protection against wind buffeting. Windscreen is now easily removable with quarter turn fasteners for quicker cleaning.


  • Simplified layout for a neater stylish finish.
  • Instrument options allowing from the Amptronic GX2 instrument to a 8.5 inch MGL EFIS colour instrument with integrated GPS.


  • General Improvements: The electrical systems have been overhauled to reduce complexity and EMI (noise). The wiring has been simplified and made easier to maintain.
  • Strobe Lights: Allowance for fitting of optional strobe light.
  • Fuel Level Sender: An inclusion to allow for real time information on fuel use and levels has been included to work with both instruments.
  • Battery: The fuel tank has been modified allowing for easier access to the battery and new transponder / radio position.


  • Installation: Thrust line has been offset (yaw) by 1.8 degrees and rotated forward (pitch) by 3 degrees significantly reducing engine torque effect at all power settings.
  • Engine cowl: is now standard

Wheel Spats

  • The rear wheel spat has been modified to improved tracking.

Wing and Stability

XRS Wing: Winglets custom designed to improve stability and wing efficiency. Underside sail area increased, and tip struts modified for a more rigged winglet mounting. These changes have resulted in improved tracking, stability, and better handling.


Feb 19th

Development of a Simple, Compact, Efficient, and Strong Foot Launched Glider Paul Hamilton 1976

By Paul Hamilton


The following is a project I intensely focused on day and night throughout college. This was written over 40 years ago and the Razr variable camber wing is still an underdeveloped technology that could simply be incorporated very cost effective into modern trike, hang gliding and other types of wings.


I obtained a patent on this technology which has long ago expired and the technology in now public. Perhaps some would like to continue with this concept which has great potential.


It is a long report that describes the joy of flying hang gliders, aerodynamic basics as understood by me in 1976, but section six covers the Razr project with future possibilities. I did wind tunnel testing and actual flight testing of this wing. Some of the applicable pictures will be posted as pictures.


If we are seriously interested I will provide all the figures to the report. This is about a gliding wing which I never realized would be put on a trike undercarriage and a new sport born. Here is a journey back memory lane.


Well here it is scanned from the type written pages so there will be many errors so here you go:




Development of a Simple, Compact, Efficient, and Strong Foot Launched Glider



Paul Hamilton 1976





November 23, 1976

Table of Contents




I.   Introduction                             2


II.   History of Hang Gliding                 3


III.   What is Hang Gliding?                   4


IV.   The Wings of Today and How They

Developed Standard to High Performance  5


V.  Aspects to Consider in Glider Design Stability - Control ability -Wing Planform - Airfoils - Strength - Portability - Speed Range               7


VI.  RAZR Project

Theory - Design - Building -

Testing - Modifications                14


VII.  Future Plans for the Razr Project       18


VIII.  Conclusion                             19

You're standing on top of a 2,000 foot mountain with a smooth 22 mph wind blowing up in your face as you look into the valley below. You glider has been preflighted, the flying harness has been checked, and your driver

has been given instructions on where to pick you up five


miles away. Heart beat increases as you walk over to the edge and listen to the wind rip through the jagged rocks. Hooked in and ready to go, you give your launcher the signal to let go of the glider. With precise timing

your total physical and mental energy is used to thrust


out into the strong air current rising from 2,000 feet below. Rocketing straight up away from the mountain, you slow the glider up and start riding the smooth lift up. Looking north, you see the summit about 4 miles away

and a 16 mile ridge line that you can travel full length.


As you ride that ridge towards the bowl below the summit, you are now in the maximum lift area, free to climb above the summit and have a view of everything below you.

Freedom to relax and float around the sky, freedom


to point your nose at the ground and go into a high


speed dive, freedom to race around the sky and do endless circles, and the freedom to see how many miles your

skill and judgment can take you are all a part of flying.


For the reader to grasp total realization from this report, he would have to have flown freely out in the air and felt this excitement. It should be realized that this is more than a technical subject (even though

it is presented that way), it is a personal way for me to

express my feeling toward this awesome sport.






Since the beginning of time, man had looked up at the birds in wonder. Early in the l8th Century,

man left the ground and glided through the air with the wind in his face. These experiments with wind powered, quiet flight stopped when the Wright Brothers took off at Kitty Hawk. Foot launched gliding was reborn a few years ago and had progressed at a very fast rate since.

This is a technical story from the very beginning


of gliding, through their evolution, to future gliders. This class of nature powered aerospace vehicles can be taken to the top of any mountain and be launched for soaring flight. Man will someday be as good as the birds. This report is the next step to that goal,

Gliders and their characteristics will be fully discussed. Aerodynamic information to arrive at facts needed to understand a good glider are discussed. The authors work last summer was devoted to building an inflatable, double surface wing that can fly extremely well. This work will be discussed, for with additional work, it will surely fly better than any other glider in its class. The evolution of this Razr is told up to its present stage with future predictions also introduced.

This report is devoted to the development of this


double surface wing and to the advancement of "free flying".

II. Early History of Hang Gliding


Leonardo da Vinci is the recorded beginning of foot launched flight. His designs are in a log that ends abruptly when his flying machines are taken to the hill to fly.

No one really knew what happened.

Around 1eoo, a professor at Santa Clara College used engineering knowledge to design, construct, and

successfully launch a glider. With control surfaces on the trailing edge, turns, dives, and successful landings were made. Professor Montgomery's glider was then towed up to 4000 feet by one of his students. After cutting loose, the student made a successful 360 degree flight with a perfect landing in front of the crowd.

Meanwhile in Germany, Otto Lilienthal was watching


the birds fly. After seeing how their feathers moved to turn and create more lift, Otto constructed a wing out of willow wands and waxed cloth (illustration #1). He was very hopeful for a negative drag airfoil which is impossible since energy can not be created.

An engineer for the New York railroad put the Pratt


Truss system into use for a stable, controlable glider


that even a beginner could fly. Octave Chanute also shared with the Wright Brothers his findings which were used by them as their beginning. With safety above all and wind

tunnel testing, the Brothers built many gliders (illustrations


#2, #3). These gliders flew extremely well and were very


safe. By putting an engine on one of these gliders, unpowered



foot launched flight was left dorment untill Francis Rogalla developed from N.A.S.A.'s multi-million dollar rocket

re-entry program, a simple and inexpensive manned kite.



r '-


This was made of bamboo and plastic which was safe enough to play with on sand dunes. From this point, a new sport

called Hang Gliding was born. (12)*


III. What is Hang Gliding?


Simply, foot launching a glider that has a slow flying speed.

·   To launch the glider, the pilot must get the glider moving through the air with a speed of at least

16 miles per hour. He does this by running hard with

very little wind, or lunging forward when there is a lot of wind, with a maximum wind speed of 35  mph.

He is hooked to the top of the control bar (triangle inderneath) by a harness and controls the glider by weight shift.

To go faster, he brings the nose of the glider down, pulling the bar back; push the bar forward to

slow up and go higher. For turns, move the body

over to the side you want to turn. Temporary loss of control will take place when the glider stalls or goes too slow. Control will be restored when speed

is regained. The pilot must develop a keen sense of airspeed, control, and awareness of conditions.

An experienced pilot stays up for hours, as long as his endurance holds and lift conditions persist.

The term lift is broken into ridge, thermal, and wave lift. Ridge lift is caused by air hitting'

a mountain and being deflected upward. The region

where air is moving up is called the lift band.

Thermal lift is rising air caused by the sun heating the earth. Soaring in thermals, the bird goes for the core of the thermal. This is located by feeling towards the maximum lift area, to make

concentric circles around an unseen drifting bulls eye.

Wave lift is caused by the air moving perpendicular over a series of parallel ridges. Getting thrown up against the first ridge, air rises the same as in ridge lift, but falls sharply to the ground

on the back side of that ridge. The air bounces in the valley, and goes up the next ridge. As it moves over this series of ridges, this wave becomes stronger until the edge of these ridges where the air splashes down strongly. The upward wave lift retaliation is

as wide as the valley.

*  See bibliography



The pilot's goal is to stay in these lift currents, then he is soaring free with the birds - the ultimate release of ones self.

The safety of the sport is determined primarily

by the hang gliding pilot. His skill and judgment, along with the quality of his glider, directly determine the accident rate. Pilot ignorance and inex­ perience are the primary causes of accidents. The gliders themselves are well engineered, soundly constructed machines. Almost all injuries result, directly or indirectly, from pilot error.

There are a number of different types and makes

of hang gliders, from fixed, ridged wings to the more popular Rogalla and high-performance Rogalla. The wings are made of aircraft quality hardware, tubing and Dacron sail cloth. (4)



IV. The Wings of Today and How They Developed


Only in the last two years have we had high performance gliders. In order to understand these high performance gliders, we must start with the standard. This is shown

as planform in illustration #4 as the solid lines. An


actual picture is shown in illustration #5.

The standard glider has an 82 degree nose angle. The billow (measured in degress of extra angle that the sail


:Iiese  a11 )


is sewn with in relation to the frame

is usually 4.0


degrees per side.  The L;D, sometimes called 'glide ratio'' (distance traveled horizontal in relation to distance traveled vertical) is around 4 to 1.

A high performance standard (illustration #5,dotted


lines) is a standard with less billow for less drag (il­ lustration #6 at, a wider nose angle, and a shorter keel (illustration #6 b). These aspects add performance but

as a result decrease stability which is graphed in


illustration #6 c for nose angle.


Looking at illustration #6 d, Case 1 shows the normal



keel camber for most standard gliders. Notice all the turbulent flow on top of the wing. This is because of the drastic

change in airflow direction and lack of surface area for this


air to flow along. If your keel were shaped as case 2, with negative reflex, it would perform better because of the lack of drag but would surely be a killer. It would have a negative moment (would want to dive).

A simple way to think about this is:  the aft section


of the keel acts as the elevator on an airplane. Elevator up - nose up. Elevator down - nose down.                                      Neutral reflex is fairly safe but in case of increased angle dives,

reflex should be put in so the glider will have some self­


righting ability. In the case of the  S keel, there will be a force up on the nose and a force down on the rear. This tends to cause a positive moment, depending upon

how much positive the aft section of the keel is.


The more it curves up in the back, to a point, the easier it will come out of a dive. (5)

Illustration #7 shows the evolution from the standard


to the high performance hang glider. The truncated tip is


a tube on the end of the leading edge spar with a couple of degrees negative angle of attack for washout. This design increased performance but was given to the roached batten tip for less weight on the tips for easy turning and a more

defined washout with good stability. With this washout (less angle of attack towards the tips) the billow would be de­ creased for higher performance. The radial batten tip is

now proven and tested to be the most efficient combination

between washout, sail billow and performance. If compared to illustration #1, it is seen that this resembles the end feathers of a bird. Two gliders using this principle are shown in illustration #8.

Further improvements such as an inflatable leading edge pocket are shown in illustration # 8 b. The conical wing design of the "Seagull" shown in illustration #9 has been evolving into a high performance glider since the beginning

of these machines. The unique cut conical design (with leading edges bent) shows excellent stability with increased performance as well as good handling characteristics. These new simple wings are now getting an 8 to 1 glide ratio.

The mono plane rigid wing (shown in illustration #10)


is controlled with rudders. This machine can reach speeds


up to 60 mph with extremely good stability and control. This glider will takedown to a very simple package. Because of

the complexity of launching1  this glide.r is usually left


to the expert. In this same performance area (10 to 1 glide ratio) is the biplane (illustration #11). This is better performance wise, but has the disadvantage of being not fully collapsible.

In the last three years, hang gliding has doubled


its performance. An overall comparison is shown in illustration


#12. Notice the jump we are now getting on the birds.



V. Aspects to Consider in Glider Design


There are different types of stability. If an aircraft gets into an unstable position (steep dive or yawed sideways)

it will stay that way or oscillate back and forth. This is called static stability or static instability. In this case the straight and smooth aircraft will continue on its path unless disturbed by some force.

Dynamic instability is the worst type of instability. Once the aircraft starts to go off line, it will,                                          increase until you correct for its bad position or until the glider stalls, spins or dives.

Dynamic stability is the correction of this airship


to its safe, controllable flying position when disturbed or brought into a dangerous altitude or position. Therefore, dynamic stability is the desired condition in most cases. Smaller nose angles tend to dampen yaw for this increase in stability, the efficient area of the wing span is shortened and air does not hit it straight thus giving less performance

per unit length of leading edge. This is shown in illustration


#6 c by the larger stabilizing force and the greater difference between the angles alpha and beta in illustration #6 b.

The angle of attack is the angle of the wind hitting the wing (g illustration #6 d.) A wing stalls or looses lift when the angle of attack becomes too high. To keep the tip of the wing from falling off near a stall, the tip is put at a

lower angle of attack so the wing stalls (or looses its lifting force) near the center of the wing first. This characteristic

of the wing twist or washout is good for landing and taking off, but is less efficient at high speeds because the air hitting the wing at different angles of attack.

Positive pitching moment is the ability of the wing to




pull out of a high speed dive. NASA reports show that the standard glider has a negative pitching moment without reflex. With reflex, this value is brought up to around 0 or neutral.

Aspect ratio equals (wingspan squared over the area of


wing)G'more of a long thin wing.  Gliders with aspect ratios greater than 5 have more of a positive pitching moment, as long as the airfoil being used is not known to tuck under (vertical dive). (13)

Now we start to mix between the high aspect ratio. Kites and the tailless foot launched sailplane. This class we will call a foot launched glider (flg). These flg's have a pitch advantage of little weight shift to cause a large pitching moment. Also the tailless glider really does have a tail. The tail is the trailing edge of the wing itself. This is because that near this trailing edge, the airfoil is reflexed up

(bent up a little bit) which gives it an up elevator tendency as the speed increases. On·.a swept  wing  this reflex  should

be put on the tips for a better moment about the aerodynamic


center, (illustration #10 b). This reflex is measured as a percentage of the location where the chord line crosses the camber line. 100% is unstable and would have a negative moment to tuck under in a dive (illustration #14). (11)

For a stall condition the stability is a function of aspect ratio and sweepback as shown in illustration #13. In conclusion: pitch stability is a function of washout, sweepback, and reflex of the trailing edge.

Dihedral angle is the angle that the wings make with the


horizontal plane. In a calm air situation a glider would

dynamically stabilize from rolling with some dihedral angle (e.g. 10 degrees). Turns can be slower and the down wing tends to lift rather than drop. In more turbulent winds however, (since the center of mass is lower) the glider has a pendulum like oscillation. (7) Since we have the ability to correct

for these oscillations dihedral is usually put in for


cleaner turns.


Control ability is ideal if there is finger touch move- ments needed by the pilot to make the wing dive, turn, and climb. Control surfaces are the most efficient way to use pilot energy to turn the craft. The natural or free sensation is retained if these control cables are hooked to the body

so that only body movement is needed to act on the control surfaces. In turbulent conditions the pilot gets thrown around which activates these rudders. For this reason some pilots prefer a hand twist grip setup. Rudders (tip rudders) can then be deflected individually to turn, or both at the same time for dive brakes. Three dimensional control with a

stick is needed on large gliders where weight shift can't

,-.o1       n

contr6l:fpitch movements.


On the smaller gliders (wingspan 32 feet) weight shift has become a standard in all gliders except rigid wings. Simplification of glider as well as weight and drag elimination tend to make weight shift control a major design focus. Tip rudders tend to decrease overall performance because they disrupt the vortex flow of air from the bottoms high pressure

to the tops low pressure. Efficiency can be increased up to double, if a vertical fin is placed in the middle of the

glider. Other control surfaces should be kept away from the tips because they have less effect as control elements because they are in this turbulent vortex flow area. (11)

Wing planform is a top view of the wing as it lies in


a plane. Nose angleAchord taper outline the main shape of


this planform. The straight and square tip are both less efficient than a wing with a good taper. The tapering of a wing to a tip chord of less than one-fifth the root chord is considered a cut off point where the bad effects tend to be more pronounced. (14)

The tip at the end could have rake (which is positive


when the trailing edge is longer than the leading edge). Positive rake will increase the L;D (lift force over drag force) but is not as structurally strong. Shaping the tips smooth and sharp to the end also improves performance. (14)

The birds wings in illustration #15 show a thickness taper down to flat at the tip of their wings. This is the secret to good wing tip formation. This is most efficient for the bird who has spoilers and landing feathers, who also doesn't worry about dropping a wing tip near the

ground. For a more stable aircraft wing with maximum performance,


illustration #16 shows a wing that has a good stall pattern with no compromise in performance loss.

A long and slender wing is much better than a short,


fat one for performance. The lateral movement of the air down the wing is decreased as well as the vortex flow (drag) with

a higher aspect wing (illustration #17). A compromise between


a high and low aspect must be reached because of the support

loss of the high aspect. In formula: aspect ratio equals wingspan2Jarea of glider. For a standard glider this number is around 3,   where high performance hang gliders run between

6 and 7, and competition sail planes run around 18. For weight shift purposes as estimated aspect ratio of 7 or e will be


the limit. Performance increases as a function of angle of attack is shown for different aspect ratios in illustration



Since airfoil stability was discussed earlier, the focus will now be directed towards airfoil performance. To compare

the thick and thin airfoils, we will use NASA 0006 (illustration


#20), and NASA 23024 (illustration #21). We first notice that the thin 0006 stalls at 12 degree angle of attac,'this in itself is a disadvantage for takeoff and landing.


Th ASiiP 2 1                   Th                             AAf & l

g =  8        Q  =  12                 Q  =  8        Q =  12

cr, =

.8     cL =

.8                cL =





L =   1.1





D =   001


=   .011

c   =   .012   c



D                                                       D                            D =








Q   =  Angle of Attack





L =  Coefficient of Lift


D  = Coefficient  of Drag

Speed is a function of angle of attack. At e degress  the wing is going faster than at 12 degress. When the thin airfoil

is going fast, it has the same CL as the thick airfoil but not as much drag. Therefore this thin section would be more efficient and go faster than the thick section at small angles of attack. At slow speeds with high angles of attack the CL

of the small airfoil stays the same while the CL of the thick




section goes way up. Also the thick section will not stall until 16 degrees where the thin will stall at 12 degrees. To summarize: the thin airfoil is better at high speeds and the thick airfoil is better at low speeds.

Strength is of great importance to an air machine. If


the wing fails in some way, the pilot's life is in great danger. In building a glider if one sticks with the saying "It's only

as _strong as the weakest part," and is sure to analyze every small part and stress point, the glider will be airworthy. Force in aircraft is rated in G's. This is defined as the force there is in one G. If the glider started free falling

there would be no G's on it. To stay in a turn, there are more G's applied as shown illustration #22. Gusts and high speed turbulence flying as well as acrobatics cause high G loadings that must be taken into account.

Special aircraft hardware must be used to insure the light­


est and strongest possible glider.


Wing loading is measured as the (total weight in pounds of flying machine and man) I (total area, square feet) of the' wing. Generally, the larger the wing loading, the faster the glider will fly as well as the faster it will sink. This

wing loading principal can change ofcourse with the character- istics of the wing planform and airfoil shape. General values are given in illustration #19 for wing loading and forward

speed. Wing loadings for foot launched gliders run between

o.e and 1.2 lbs/ft2. The larger values are for the higher per­


formance gliders. A safe wing loading and therefore speed must be chosen for safety and performance to match with the

gliders purpose.


Portability is one aspect that makes hang gliding possible for most people. An important advantage to the standard frame

is that it can be folded up into a 17' to 21' long tube with a diameter of about eight inches. This is done by taking out bolts at the point K (figure #23) and folding the crossmember H along the keel B. The leading edges C are then dropped back

parallel to the keel. Rolling the sail up with wires and control


bar packed inside, the pilot can easily take this tube on his car. With a weight of 3e lbs. this glider can be packed on the shoulder for almost unlimited access to any mountain top.

Most can be reached with a four wheel drive. Another practical advantage is the ease in storage. It's easy to put up in a garage on hangers or suspended from the ceiling by ropes.

Rigid wings do not have this portability advantage. They must' be hauled in a box on top of the car or in a trailer and they are not comfortable.

A high speed range of a glider is the main criterea most


designers are striving for. A slow speed is needed in a glider for easier launches and establishing a minimum sink rate for floating up in a lift (vertical wing current) situation. High speed landings on foot are dangerous. With slow speed foot launched gliders, landings are as soft as a feather.

High speeds are needed to get quickly away from down air currents. Longer distances sometimes must be covered with

ease and altitude. A glider designed for higher speeds flys


more horizontal and therefore loses less altitude per unit distance (better glide angle).

The needs of soaring, gaining altitude, and going long distances, is therefore a good speed range. The pilot would

then be able to change his flying speed to different atmospheric conditions ( such as an increase or decrease in wind velocity).

VI. RAZR Project


In the last two years, hang gliders have evolved extremely fast. There have been a lot of new radical designs out. Many people have died test flying these prototypes also. We

have now got some good safe designs. The gliders now are small


enough to be turned by weight shift and have a single surface at a high aspect and maximum area. A double surface that would change its thickness with speed (higher speed thinner airfoil; lower speed thicker airfoil) is a major step in increasing performance while not sacrificing weight shift control.

The development of a changeable double surface started


around Christmas of 1975. The planform first looked like illustration 24 a. Evolving on paper to figure 24 c, the aspect ratio was increased as well as the area of the double surface with relation to the total area of wing. The ribs were hooked onto the leading edge to make a more rigid structure and avoid wing changes at extreme angles of attack or odd positions.

The single surface tended to stabilize the wing while the performance is achieved in the double surface.


The theory of the Razr is a changing airfoil as a


function of angle of attack and therefore speed. If the double


surface at the nose is cut away (shown very well on the cover of this report) then air is allowed to flow into this double surface. With more vertical air (high angle of attack) there



is more projected area of this ram air, thus causing a high pressure inside the wing in relation to the outside top surface pressure which is lower any way because of the angle of attack. Thus with both pressures working with each other, they tend

to find the most comfortable airfoil profile which tends to fill in the vacuum or drag area to a smooth laminar flow situation giving the most efficient airfoil for low speed (figure #25). For a low angle of attack the opposite is true.

Less projected area causes a lower pressure inside with relation to the upper surface and therefore gives a more sleek airfoil

for higher speeds." The air goes in the ram air, pressurizes


the inside and then flows out at the tips.


This changing shape of the Razr can be compared to the changing shape of the dolphin. For the energy put into locomotion for the dolphin, his speed is outstandingly fast. A dense elastic membrane covering a viscous fluid enable the dolphin skin to compress under pressure to eliminate that impact drag. In low pressure or vacuum areas, this skin can expand and fill in that vacuum area to allow smooth flow

and eliminate a separation of the fluid into a turbulent area. When the Navy used this principle on a submarine, the speed doubled for the same conditions.

The inside and outside pressures of the Razr airfoil


allow total freedom for the surface to form to the most efficient shape for the immediate condition.

Vortex drag, which is air flowing from the high


pressure on the bottom of the wing to the low pressure from


the top via the tips, (illustration #26), is reduced by  this




smooth flow out the end of tips. Using this theory concerning the elimination of tip drag and high efficiency of the airfoil, it was time to start construction and find out how this would really work.

The glider was built in the summer of 1976, funded by Steve Sheehan and Ken (Zulu) Kuklewski of Sierra Wind Sports in Reno. The best hardware from the leading manufactures was used to produce a high quality frame of good structure..The sail was cut out and brought to a seamstress who we worked with. The glider is shown soaring (figure #27) after its 15th test flight.

The main problem in test flying was learning how to fly


a glider with such high performance characteristics. The first few flights were uncontrollable over-corrections. It was hard

to say if it was the glider or the pilot. Testing moved immediately  from the rocky mountains of Reno to the softer sand  and consistent sea breezes of San Francisco. After much trial and error, it was getting excellent performance as well as carring heavy pilots.

Different leading edge cambers were tried for ease in


turning. The tips turned down worked best and gave the most desirable flying characteristics. After flying the Razr for about 2 weeks, we realized that modifications must be made. It was noticed from figure #2e that there was too much material on the bottom and not enough on top. Shifting more material to the top (figure #29), a rotor area is taken away and a more efficient airfoil is established. Since no air

was flowing through the nozzles (nozzles at tip of wing on

trailing edge. Figure #27), they were also removed. The stability of the pitch was so positive that the trailing edge was cut linear for ease of turning and elimination of that positive camber at the tips. This positive camber was pitch stability from dives but also adds drag. This new profile as well as the closing of the ram air is shown by the dotted lines in figure #24 c.

The new Razr is shown flying in illustrations 30-36.


Illustration #32 shows a smooth wing twist out to tips. In illustration #34, notice the flat transitions of the double surface to the single surface. An abrupt transition would cause drag.

The speed range is what had been expected. It doesn't


take much running to get it off the ground. Top speeds were tested by climbing all the way foreward on the control bar (illustration #35), notice the arm position in relation to

the other pictures. The arched body is for streamlining. Esti­


mated speeds of up to 55 mph were achieved with the glider always having a positive moment (tendency to pull out) when the bar was released. Flying next to other high performance gliders the minimum sink was as good even though the wing loading was greater. At moderate speeds (25 mph) the glide is extremely flat, estimated to be 8 or 10 to 1.

Turning was a matter of learning how to turn this new wing. Improvement is still needed for roll but future testing and experimenting will tell. Pitch control is very sensitive with only a 7 foot keel and is always positive at higher speeds.

In quest for the perfect air flow and most efficient flow through the inflateable pocket, the escape opening was modified several times. From figure #30 it is noticed that the air re­

lease    tip of glideirs) very small and fat in comparison'


to the large skinny opening in figure #31. At higher speeds the pressure inside the wing was too small that the bottom collapsed when the escape nozzle was too big. Also, minimum sink efficiency was decreased.

With the estimated air f   low through the nozzles more exact, another modification was done. The ram air was closed and supported from collapsing by an aluminum rib. The bottom

surface out on the tips was slightly cut out and a more efficient


escape nozzle was sewn in. The wrinkles and negative cup shown in illustration #30 was taken out by scalloping the trailing edge to look like the yellow outline of illustration #24 c.

Shape of the inflatable double surface is of main concern. Illustration #33 shows the bottom of this surface while in flight. This is before the air escape nozzle was opened up.

When it was opened up too much this surface was concave instead of convex as shown here. Illustration #36 is most interesting

if the leading edge is observed closely. The camber at the nose is small and it increases toward the middle and then tapers

ever so slightly towards the tips. Also, the high camber is what was expected with the slow speed (noted by body position).

VII. Future Plans for RAZR Project


A project already being considered is shown in illustration


#37. The double surface has more percentage area in the wing and the crossmember will be inside the double surface.

A fully cantilevered wing with control surfaces is also being considered. It would be a foot launched sailplane similas to illustration #38 (which is now being built in Lake Tahoe), but smaller. The wings fully collapse and would use the inflatable double surface idea.

A patent on this changeable double surface airfoil is now' in the making. Hopefully, the design will be sold to a leading manufacturer and thus be developed to its full potential.

VIII. Conclusion


Hang gliders have progressed to a stage where the single surface airfoil is giving its maximum performance. The in­ flateable double surface is a major breakthrough in their evolution. This is shown by the performance of the Razr. It flys faster, sinks at the same rate, and is stable or more stable than the high performance gliders on the market. With all these good characteristics, it also has less area than

is recommended for single surface gliders of today.


These conclusions are not drawn from theory only, but from actual flying and testing. This is the break though that has been needed for about a year. The future of foot launched gliders will soon be using this idea to increase the perfor-

mance of these flying machines to a maximum. With full development


of this idea, we will soon equal the birds, not in ability, but in flying apparatus. This alone has been a goal of man since the beginning of time.











1.     Abbott, Ira H. and Von Doenhoff, A. E. Theory of Wing Sections, pp. 452-453, 506-507. New York, Dover Publica­ tions, 1959.


2.     Boone, Dick Evolutioof the Radial Tip Glider.       Ground

Skimmer Magazine. No. 4):21-2). August 1976


3.    Hall, StPn Stnbility of Tailless Gliders. Ground

Skimmer. No. 42:22-26. July 1976.


4.      Hamilton, Paul What is Hang Gliding, p. 1.  Program for

2nd Annual Reno Fly In. June 12-13


5.    Hamilton, Paul Pilots Workshop••Glider Aerodynamics.

Glide Path Magazine.  No. 2:18-19. May 1976


6.     Hayward, Charles B. Practical Aeronautics, pp. 12-15.

Chicago, A erican School of Correspondence.  1912.


7.    Lougheed, Viator Aeroplane Designing for Amateurs,

pp. 43, 58-59. Chicago. The reilly and Britton Co.                     1912.


8.      Mac Cready, Paul B. Hang Gljder Performance: Compar­ isons, FP damentals, and Potentials.   Ground Skimmer Maga­ zine.      Nr. 38:22-25.   March 1976.


Me KinJ.ey, James L. and Bent, Ralph D. Basic Science for Aerospe Vehicles, 4th ed.,      pp. o8, 89.                      New York

Me Graw-Hill Book Company. 1976.





















Ma.ltby, R.  L. Flow Visualiza.tion in Wind Tunnels Using IndieatorB. AGARD ograph 70, pp. 108-109. North Atlantic Treaty Organization Advisory Group for Aeronautical Re­ search and Development.   Royal Aircraft Establishment, Bedford, .England. April 1962.


M8rske, Jim Experiment in Flying Wing Sailplanes,

pp. 44-45, 14-15. Jim Marske, 130 Crestwood Drive, Michi­

gan City, Indiana. 1970.


Pointer, Dan Hang Gliding the Basic Hangbook of Sky­ surfing, 6th ed., pp. 39-60, 63.  Santa Barbara, California. Daniel F. Pointer. 1975.


Valle, Gary Gliders Pitch, Stability, and Control. Ground  Skiru.ner, No. 42:44-46. July 1976.



Warner, Edward P. Airplane Design: Performance, 2nd ed., pp. 30. 240-246. New York. Me Graw-Hill Book Company.


Bibliography (Cont.)






15.      Manta Wings, 1647 East 4th Street, Oakland, California.


Product Pamphlet.




16.      Seagull Aircraft, 3021 Airport Avenue, Santa Monica, California 90405.    Product Pamphlet.




17.      Delta Wing Kites And Gliders, Inc. 13620 Saticoy,


Van Nuys, California 91408. Product Pamphlet.




18.      Ultra Light Flying Machines, Box 59, Cuperino, California.  Product Pamphlet.




19.      Bede Aircraft, Inc. 355 Richmond Road, Cleveland, Ohio.       Product Pamphlet, p. 12.


Feb 16th

Weight-Shift Control Trike Aerodynamics- Wing tip angle of attack (AOA) in turns test demonstration Part 2

By Paul Hamilton


There has been a question about the basics of angle of attack of the tip in a turn for the weight-shift control trike wing considering wing twist and roll dampening. Here is a simple test with airflow and angle of attack clearly shown for a turn.


We saw in the last video that the twist in the wing tip could vary as much as 6 to 9 degrees up and down from neutral in extreme turns side to side in the Revo Rival S trike. This was a simple test, but the measurements were simple, reliable and repeatable with error bands providing a reliable 6 to 8 degrees twist change. We calculated the roll dampening factor. Here we are actually able to look and see it.


Here, with this visualization of actual airflow and wing twist in relation to the airflow, we are able to see the angle of attack of the tips for the phases for a turn. We went 60 degrees to 60 degrees bank to be able to detect the airflow and angle of attack of the wing. Any smaller is just too hard to see a significant enough change to provide reliable conclusions.


So based on our visualization of this video, we will break the side to side (60 degrees left to 60 degrees right) turn down into six distinct phases. We have not considered the adverse yaw which is a completely different topic. Phases of the turn:


Phase 1 Initial weight shift/billow shift, washout/twist change.


This is where the weight is shifted, side pressure applied and the tip twists to reduce lift to start the roll.


Phase 2 Start of the roll.


This is where the wing starts dropping and starting the rolling momentum of the heavy wing above. The wing is just starting to accelerate down. Side control pressure is present to provide maximum twist in the wing to continue to roll/accelerate the wing down. Here we have a significant reduction in angle of attack of the wing from the billow shift/washout/twist change to provide enough tip roll moments to roll the wing.


Phase 3 Mid roll acceleration.


This is where the wing has gained some roll momentum, shown here as the “wing level” rolling side to side, and still gaining roll momentum. Here we see the angle of attack on the wing start to increase as the roll dampening (change of airflow to the wing as the wing drops increasing the angle of attack of the wing). Here we see the roll dampening start to increase. Here roll pressure is still applied to provide as low as angle of attack on the tip as possible to continue the roll.




Phase 4 Max roll acceleration.


This is where the roll momentum has built and the wing is dropping at the maximum roll velocity. Here the roll dampening is at its greatest and the angle of attack on the tip is the greatest because of the roll dampening. Here we are past level and the turn is initiating in the other direction. This is where adverse yaw is probable the greatest and trying to catch up with the turn.


Phase 5 Roll deceleration.


Now we have some centrifugal force and we can release the control pressure to let the centrifugal force bring the undercarriage out directly under the wing and stabilize the turn in the opposite direction.


Phase 6 Stabilized turn.


Once the control pressure is released we are in a stabilized turn and the angle of attack on the tips is equal as in level flight except we have greater g loading in the higher banked turn.


It should be noted that in a WSC roll the weight of the undercarriage provides substantial rolling moment. However, the percentage of actual weight shift verses aerodynamic billow shift/washout/twist change  rolling moments is largely dependent on the specific trike design and the ability of it to provide the twist change from the weight shift, wristed keel or roll assist (which is used with the P&M STARS system). Based on calculations, I estimate the percentage of weight shift rolling moment to twist change aerodynamic rolling moments to range between 25 to 75 percent of the total rolling moment for the trike depending on the specific design.


 We have a large range of trike designs out there with different design characteristics…


Feb 6th

Cross Country (Long Distance) Flying Prep & Gear

By Rizwan Bukhari

Hi all,

I wanted to start a blog about cross country flying. For new pilots who are exploring long cross country flying, what considerations should they take?

Jeff trike made an awesome recommendation "Delorme Inreach" a PLB (Personal Locator Beacon) GPS tracker that allows two way text messaging.

How about a tent, tie downs, thermal blanket, knife etc?


How do you prepare for a cross country trip? What would you take to your cross country trip? Any brand recommendations that have worked well for you?