Because the way it says on my certificate is WSC then a comma and then the N number comma of my old trike and then the Serial number of the old trike. My understanding is one can inspect any Weight Shift without updating the license. Since all the fields are separated by the commas. I was on hold for quite some while with the FAA and finally had to hang up.
If the N number needs to be changed on the certificate, what form is there to do so?
Any pilots out there you should consider getting a flight instructor rating. This allows you to get new pilots into the sport and make money flying. The best way to get better flying and at aeronautical knowledge, teach it. If anyone has any questions about this see http://trikepilot.beasportpilot.com/trike-pilot/trike-flight-instructors/
feel free to call me at 775 772 8232
|Peloncillo Mountains outcrop||
|Hill in Animas Valley in southern New Mexico||
|Low level aerial view of the Big Hatchet mountains|
|Headstone in Jhus canyon||
This technique works at any scale from small to large landscapes, and is just a matter of composition.
While a number of different post production processing techniques may be used on a photograph, generally on a slight decrease in input levels and a slight increase in contrast suffice to bring out the layered depth in a composition.
BY J. MAC MCCLELLAN
WHEN MOST NONPILOTS LEARN that airplanes can be skinned in cloth
instead of metal, they are surprised. The idea that fabric can carry
the loads of flight is not intuitive. Most of us at one time or
another have ripped our pants in a way that leaves lingering conviction
that we wouldn’t want to bet our life on highly stressed
cloth and stitched seams.
But anybody with knowledge of aircraft construction knows
that fabric cover has a long, durable, and proven history. Fabric
cover is so strong that it is still used on a number of high-performance
aerobatic airplanes such as the Pitts and Eagle biplanes.
And many large and fast airplanes of the World War II era used
fabric covering on critical flight control surfaces.
In the early days of aviation, most airplanes were skinned with
fabric, usually made from cotton or linen. When the covering is
coated with dope or more advanced paints, it becomes smooth
and impervious to air penetration. In more recent decades, manmade
fibers have been created and woven into much stronger and
more durable fabrics. With proper installation and care, modern
fabric covering can fly safely for decades.
So it is a surprise that fabric cover failure would bring down a
light-sport aircraft, killing the two people onboard.
The airplane was a P&M Aviation Pegasus Quik 912S that
was manufactured in the United Kingdom. The Pegasus Quik
is a weight-shift-control (WSC) aircraft, meaning the pilot
pushes and pulls on a control bar to shift
the weight of the fuselage—pod, actually—
and occupants to control the aircraft
instead of using movable control surfaces.
The 912S refers to the Rotax 912 engine,
rated at 100 hp, that powers the Quik.
The most basic WSC aircraft are little
more than a wing with the pilot suspended
below. The pilot grasps a bar and
muscles his weight fore or aft to pitch up
and down. And he shifts his body left or
right relative to the bar to bank the airplane
to turn. There is no yaw control in
the normal sense.
A WSC is what most of us would call a
hang glider. Hang gliding is popular along
seashores, where a breeze can produce lift
and there are dunes or cliffs to launch
from to begin the glide.
The Pegasus Quik shares the same
basic control concept with a hang glider,
but is a much more advanced aircraft.
The Quik has a fuselage pod and tricycle
landing gear. The two seats are side by
side. And the four-cylinder Rotax
engine is mounted behind the seats
with a pusher propeller.
The swept wing of the Quik is
mounted on a pylon—mast is another
word that comes to mind—protruding up
from the fuselage. The wing is hinged in
such a way that it is free to pitch leading
edge up and down relative to the fuselage,
and to bank left or right. Dual
control bars that are attached to the
wing protrude down to a position in
front of each seat.
The Quik is no slouch, with a maximum
takeoff weight of only 903 pounds
for its 100-hp engine to push. Many
light-sport airplanes weighing almost
50 percent more have the same 100 hp
available. And with 114 square feet of
wing area, the Quik has low wing loading,
giving it a slow stall speed and
The mission was to fly around a
small island in Hawaii on what was
billed as an “introductory instructional”
flight. Aircraft such as the Quik
that are approved under the light-sport
aircraft (LSA) rules cannot be flown for
compensation or hire to take a person
on a sightseeing flight as you can, with
some restrictions, in a standard category
The 49-year-old pilot flying the Quik
held a sport pilot certificate and a flight
instructor rating for WSC aircraft. He
also had a repairman certificate for LSA
in the WSC category, was certificated to
pilot balloons, and held a private pilot
certificate for single-engine airplanes.
He was legally certificated to conduct an
introductory instructional flight, but
given that the operation was in Hawaii,
and the flight would be mostly over the
beach and near cliffs arising from the
ocean, one could wonder if instruction
was the primary mission for the flight.
The pilot’s logbook was not recovered
by the NTSB, but on a medical
certificate application nearly three years
before the accident, he reported having
1,800 hours’ total flying experience.
The Pegasus Quik left the factory in
Marlborough, England, about four years
before the accident, with an empty
weight of 464 pounds. With its
maximum takeoff gross weight of 903
pounds, there were 439 pounds of useful
load available. Maximum fuel capacity
was 17 gallons, so with the tank full, the
payload was down to 337 pounds for
people and any other items on board.
About a year after the Quik was manufactured,
a ballistic recovery parachute
system was installed, along with several
other pieces of additional equipment.
Maintenance records show that the BRS
and other equipment added 38.5 pounds
to the empty weight, lowering the fullfuel
payload to 298.5 pounds.
The NTSB reports that the pilot and
passenger together weighed approximately
420 pounds. If the fuel tank were
full, the Quik would have weighed about
1,024.5 pounds at takeoff, or about 121
pounds—13 percent—above the certified
maximum gross takeoff weight.
The Quik flew across the island to a
beach where there is an impressive rock
formation rising out of the water. The
weather was good VFR. Witnesses
reported seeing the Quik fly back and
forth along the beach and inland toward
the cliffs. The pilot reportedly flew
close to the cliffs, making steep turns
back toward the ocean. Because the
fuselage pod must remain suspended in
tension below the wing, all maneuvers
must be positive g. The manufacturer
restricts pitch attitude to a maximum of
45 degrees up or down and bank angle
to 60 degrees.
Several witnesses reported seeing the
pilot fly toward the cliffs, apply full
power, and nose-up steeply in an apparent
attempt to climb over the
450-foot-high rocks and enter a valley.
Witnesses said that the pilot didn’t clear
the cliff, but banked very steeply to the left
at the last moment, missing the cliff face
by about 50 to 100 feet. As the Quik nearly
completed the 180-degree turn away from
the cliff face, witnesses said the bank
angle increased to almost vertical. One
witness said he saw the airplane begin to
side-slip downward in the steep bank at a
rate he estimated to be 500 to 600 fpm.
The pilot managed to roll level, but was
only about 200 feet above the water in a
The NTSB reports that witnesses had a
good enough view to see the pilot fully
extending his arms on the control bar,
pushing forward in an attempt to raise the
nose and stop the descent. One witness
saw the wing begin to buffet and said he
then heard a loud “pop” and the fabric on
the right side of the wing went slack.
Several witnesses then saw the Quik complete
a barrel roll to the right before it
impacted the water at an airspeed the
NTSB estimates to be 70 knots. The BRS
chute was not deployed. Both onboard
were killed by impact.
Divers raised the Quik from about 30
feet of water. The aircraft’s pod was
crushed and wrinkled in a way that is
consistent with impact forces from the
front left. The wing sustained severe
impact damage, and the fabric covering
had numerous tears and holes. NTSB
investigators could not be certain exactly
what fabric failure was caused by impact
with the water and what may have failed
The NTSB also recovered two GoPro
compact video cameras that had been
mounted on the Quik. One camera was
aimed ahead of the airplane, and the other
pointed back toward the occupants.
Investigators were able to recover the
video images and, using the view ahead
and the background view of the rearwardfacing
camera, reconstruct the flight path.
The video record confirmed witness
reports of the Quik maneuvering along the
beach and cliffs, including the very steep
turn away from the cliff and dive during
recovery from the turn.
The fabric cover on the Quik wing is a
polyester material made by a company
that specializes in making fabrics for sailboat
sails. The loads on aircraft covering
and sails are similar, and in both applications
ultraviolet light is a major threat to
the strength of the fabrics over time.
That’s why sailors cover their sails with
UV-resistant canvas when the sails are
furled. The NTSB provides no information
on whether the Quik was stored
inside when not flying, or left out in the
The Quik maintenance manual
includes the warning to “check your sail
for ultraviolet damage regularly. Flying
with a damaged sail could cause structural
failure, injury, or death.” The maintenance
manual directs that the fabric cover
should be tested annually or every 100
hours for strength degradation caused by
The typical fabric strength tester is
called a Bettsometer, which has a probe
that penetrates the fabric. The tester is then
pulled against a calibrated scale to determine
how much force is required to rip a
small area of the fabric or a seam. The manual
specifi ed 1,360 grams of force on the
Bettsometer is the minimum before the
fabric cover must be replaced. The logbook
of the accident airplane shows the most
recent 100-hour inspection occurred one
year before the accident. The Quik had
fl own a total of 380 hours at that time.
There was no record of the required
Bettsometer test being performed. The previous
100-hour inspection records show the
test was performed and the fabric strength
tested okay. NTSB tests of the fabric of the
recovered wing showed the Bettsometer
results averaged 950 grams for the right
wing and 800 grams on the left side.
A representative of the Quik manufacturer
told NTSB investigators that about
two weeks before the accident, the pilot
had contacted him to purchase a new
wing. The representative said the pilot
told him the aircraft had accumulated
about 500 hours of flight time.
The NTSB determined the probable
cause of the accident to be “the pilot’s continued
operation of the aircraft with
deteriorated wing fabric and his aggressive
maneuvering at low altitude, which
resulted in the right wing fabric’s failure
during fl ight.” The Board found that contributing
to the cause of the accident was
“the pilot’s loading of the aircraft in excess
of the maximum gross weight limit.”
The Board also points out that the
video of the flight shows that the “student”
never touched the flight controls,
nor were there any flight activities that
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