Airworthiness Certification of Products and Articles
Operations Limitations Job Aid,
I went with my friend for a flight today, I fly a Northwing Navajo with HKS 700e. We did a few touch and gos, on two of the landings we felt a significant shimmy.
Now on my trike, I already have a dampner, I am tyring to figure out what could have caused the shimming, the only thing I can think is that my tundra tires were a bit low on air and also the second landing was done probably a bit faster, with about 6 mile cross wind.
Has anyone who owns a Navajo trike exprienced this? sometimes I think due to a four stroke engine, maybe the rear part of the trike already is heavy to begin with, add a 215 pound passenger and slightly deflated tire, coupled with a cross wind landing and all of the above could have contributed to the shimmy.
The first time my speed during the shimmying was around 20s or so, so I punched the throttle and took off again, the second time I applied the brake and that kind of stopped the shimmying.
None the less, I would like your input. For those of you who have tundra tires, what is the pressure you keep in those tires?
I spoke to trike pilot friend, he recommended to check my axles and rear gear assembly, for any cracks or damage and also to land slow and keep the nose wheel up as long as possible at landing. I couldn't find any damage on the trike, so I was hoping for anyone else who has experienced the same shimmying, that could shed some light on this topic and share their solution.
Now is the time to order a new Delta Jet 2 as the Euro may never be lower than it is right now Here is an example of a SLSA DJ2 with 100hp, engine enclosure, Cheval 12.4m Wing with Electric Trim, MGL xTreme EFIS, MGL V6 Radio, lights, Flycom helmets and BRS for $66K.
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P.S. See and Fly the Delta Jet 2 trike at Sun n Fun April 21-26 in Lakeland Florida.
With the 912S at density altitudes I operate at 5000 to 12,000 MSL, I am only getting 85 to 64 HP out of my 100HP. That 914 turbo gets 115, almost double at high altitudes.
I had an opportunity to deal with a great flight instructor who does the tailwheel training and specializes in back country high altitude training. I asked about how the 914 got so popular on Kitfoxes and he said he ordered one specifically for his type of training and now almost everyone is ordering them. It rockets.
Of course they are not cheap, and they weigh maybe 30 pounds more, but after my experience with that much POWER AT ALTITUDE, the 914 is amazing.
For cross country flights I get 90 MPH true at 8000 MSL equating to about 74 HP out of the 912S. With a 914 at 115 HP at 8000 MSL , running some really rough numbers, I could get 110 to 115 MPH true with the 914.
That is a nice speed jump for a cross country and maybe a new trike speed record.
Will there be a 914 for trikes in our future. HMMM
Just got a call from someone who wants to come out and learn to fly a trike, but does not want to buy a trike for his solo. Sure would be nice to be able to solo students in an ultralight which laws do not allow. Just make some stickers and paperwork and we could have a S-LSA ultralight for rental for about $20,000. Easier said than done i am sure.
I could see myself having an ultralight with S-LSA paperwork and would feel comfortable soloing students in a $20,000 aircraft. The ultralight could be upgraded with larger fuel tanks as an LSA and would not be restricted to ultralight rules. HUH. I could sell it as an ultralight, E-LSA or S-LSA.
Any other thoughts from the community about such an idea? Should we push our manufacturers to spend the extra money for S-LSA certification? Could a manufacturer even build an ultralight that could additionally get S-LSA certification?
Food for thought.
This is what I do to get tuned into a trike/wing and feel it is one of the most important maneuvers for pilots to practice.
Principles of energy management are important for low momentum trikes.
Sometimes we forget some of the basics are right in front of us.
Here is what is in the FAA Weight-Shift Control Aircraft Flying Handbook page 6-19:
The WSC aircraft has very little momentum because of its relative light weight as compared to airplanes. Therefore, it is important that pilots learn to manage the kinetic energy of the WSC. Higher speed and higher power is higher energy.
Lower speed and lower power is lower energy. The ability for a pilot to maintain high energy levels in turbulent air and while near the ground is the basis for energy management for WSC.
Energy management should first be practiced at higher altitudes. While maintaining straight-and-level flight, power is increased and decreased, and pitch control must be used. The pilot should start at the trim position and with the appropriate cruise throttle setting. As power is smoothly applied towards full throttle, the WSC aircraft pitch attitude attempts to increase. The pilot should decrease the pitch to
maintain level flight. This results in a high energy level. Once this application is held for a couple seconds, the pilot should then smoothly reduce power to the cruise power
setting and increase pitch to maintain level flight. The WSC aircraft is now back to at a lower trim/cruise power in a medium energy level.
Again, increase power and reduce pitch to stay level attaining a high energy level. Now, reduce power to idle and as the nose lowers, increase pitch. The pilot must be aware of the decreasing energy levels occurring during this phase of the maneuver for this is usually a precursor to accidents when
approaching the runway. The pilot should recognize this scenario and promptly apply the power as appropriate to prevent the aircraft from descending. Additionally, the pilot must be aware of the slow flight and stall characteristics to prevent a stall and to maintain a specified heading.
Once the student masters this maneuver successfully at higher altitudes, energy management can be practiced with low passes down the runway in calm winds at higher energy levels, then at the lower trim/cruise power medium energy level, and finally higher to medium trim/cruise power energy
levels. Low passes over the runway fine tunes the student’s skills for energy management and is an excellent exercise to prepare students for landings.
It is important to understand that higher energy levels should be used while maneuvering near the ground especially in turbulent or crosswind conditions. This is discussed in Chapter 7, Takeoff and Departure Climbs, that higher energy is recommended as the WSC aircraft lifts off and initially climbs out from the runway.
Higher energy is also recommended for a power on approach where the airspeed is higher than the normal approach speed; and the power is higher than the normal approach power. There is still a descent rate, but the WSC aircraft has more overall energy to handle turbulence and crosswinds.
Here is more in the FAA Weight-Shift Control Aircraft Flying Handbook page 11-15 for landing in the "Estimating Height and ovement" section:
The best way to recognize and become accustomed to heights and
speeds for a particular WSC aircraft is to perform low passes
over the runway, as discussed earlier, with energy management.
Perform a normal approach first, then a high energy pass at a
higher speed, and then medium-energy passes at lower speeds.
These exercises are performed first in calm winds at a height, as
an example, at which the wheels are 10 feet above the runway,
then lowering to just inches above the runway as the pilot’s
The objective is to become proficient at flying straight down the runway centerline at a constant altitude. This exercise provides the opportunity to determine height and speed over the runway before any landings are performed. These should generally be performed in mild conditions. Higher energy and greater heights above the runway are required in windier and bumpier conditions.
And finally on page 11-17 we have:
Power-on Approach and Landing for Turbulant Air
Power-on approaches at an airspeed above the normal approach speed should be used for landing in turbulent air. This provides for more energy and positive control of the aircraft when strong horizontal wind gusts, wind sheer, or up and down drafts, are experienced. Like other power-on approaches (when the pilot can vary the amount of power), a coordinated combination of both speed and power adjustments is usually required.
It is easiest to think of flying the aircraft onto the ground at an airspeed above the stall speed. The additional power provides the pilot the ability to reduce the descent rate to touch the wheels gently to the surface at a higher speed. Landing in turbulent air is where practice and experience in energy management are utilized.
This precise coordination of power and speed for higher energy landings should first be practiced in calm air and can be used as the next step in learning landings after the student becomes proficient at low approaches.
To determine the additional approach speed to flying in turbulence, one procedure is to use the normal approach speed plus one-half of the wind gust factors. The wind gust factor is determined by how much the airspeed varies while flying. If the normal approach speed is 50 knots and the wind gusts are at 15 knots, an airspeed of 57 knots is appropriate.
Another method is to ensure the aircraft is at least at VY speed plus the wind gust factor. In any case, the airspeed that the aircraft manufacturer recommends.
An adequate amount of power should be used to maintain the proper airspeed and descent path throughout the approach and the throttle retarded to idling position only after the main wheels contact the landing surface. Care must be exercised in not closing the throttle before the pilot is ready for touchdown. In this situation, the sudden or premature closing of the throttle may cause a sudden increase in the descent rate that could result in a hard landing.
Landings from power-on approaches in turbulence should be such that the touchdown is made with the aircraft in approximately level flight attitude. The pitch attitude at touchdown should be only enough to prevent the nosewheel from contacting the surface before the main wheels have touched the surface. Most WSC are designed so the front wheel is higher than the back wheels in this situation, but each
WSC is different. This must be evaluated for each model.
After touchdown, the pilot should reduce the throttle to idle and pull the control bar all the way to the chest to lower the nose and prevent the WSC aircraft from lifting off until it slows below the stall speed. The aircraft should be allowed to decelerate normally with the aerodynamic braking of the wing with the nose lowered, and assisted by the wheel brakes as required.
912iS installation requires some careful considerations,
specially for vapor-lock in rare circumstances that can prove to
be very harmful. While designing the 912iS installation for Delta
Jet-II and our airplane, I came across this video that puts the
advice and warnings in the installation manual that don't seem
that prominent into words in reality. Worth watching for serious
Use a good well know reliable oil. Many engine failures are from some new oil mixture, some magic new oil or someone trying to save money on cheap oil. I recommend three types of oil. The most reliable over history is the Pennzoil - 2-cycle Air-Cooled Engine Oil. This has been tested and is proven to be the best dinosaur oil. This is the preferred oil if you are in a humid area and/or go for longer periods without running your engine. Pennzoil - 2-cycle Air-Cooled Engine Oil produces the least amount of carbon deposits (for dinosaur oil) and keeps oil on internal components with so they do not corrode when sitting in a humid environment for longer periods without being run.
The new Aero Shell Sport PLUS 2 has been recently developed specifically for Rotax 2 stroke engines and has been tested and provides the same protection as the Penzoil. This is another recommended viable option.
I just installed Oil injection on my low hour 582 grayhead and wanted recommendations for 2 stroke oil which I got from the above blog. The only problem is this. Aero Shell Plus 2 is no longer made and is discontinued according to the supplier. As is Pennzoil 2 Cycle air cooled oil. The only replacement is Pennzoil Outdoor Multipurpose 2 Stroke oil. See discription below:
Pennzoil® Premium Outboard and Multi-Purpose 2-Cycle
Engine Oil is a high-performance 2-cycle engine oil meeting or
exceeding the warranty requirements of all leading manufacturers
of 2-cycle products including chain saws, lawn mowers,
motorcycles and string trimmers, as well as outboard engines made
by: Johnson/Evinrude, Mercury Marine, Yamaha, Suzuki, Nissan,
Force/US Marine, Mariner, Sears and all other manufacturers
requiring NMMA TC-W3® oil.
Any opinions on this using
this oil would be appreciated. It seems there isn't much of
any other choices other than the oils found in the Walmart aisle.
It appears that manufacturers like Shell, Pennzoil and
Castrol don't have enough of a market to justify producing a
specialized oil such as Aero Shell Plus 2, as they only produced
this for a little over a year. Comments are
Drones are coming. Keep ypur eyes open below 500 AGL where many of us like to fly.
AOPA came out with a great summary and here it is:
The FAA has announced a proposed rule governing the use of commercial small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) that would address many of AOPA's concerns, including setting certification requirements for operators and requiring see-and-avoid capabilities. The rule affects UAS weighing 55 pounds or less that are flown for non-recreational purposes.
Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx and FAA Administrator Michael Huerta announced details of the proposed rule during an unusual Sunday news conference on Feb. 15. Under the notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), small UAS would be required to “see and avoid” other aircraft, giving right of way to manned aircraft.
They also would be limited to daylight, line-of-sight operations with a least 3 statute miles visibility at speeds of less than 100 mph and altitudes below 500 feet. The UAS would not be allowed to operate over people, except those involved in the flight. They would be required to remain outside of Class A airspace and at least 500 feet below clouds and 2,000 feet from them horizontally. Operations in Class B, C, and D airspace, as well as within the lateral boundaries of the surface area of Class E airspace, can be allowed with prior permission from air traffic control.
The NPRM also sets certification requirements for small UAS operators, requiring them to be at least 17 years of age, pass an FAA-administered knowledge test every two years, and obtain an FAA-issued UAS Operator Certificate with a small UAS rating.
While the FAA will not require the aircraft themselves to be certified, it will require them to obtain an FAA registration and display an N-number. Operators must also conduct preflight safety inspections before each flight.
“Safety is our biggest concern when it comes to integrating unmanned aircraft into the airspace system,” said AOPA President Mark Baker. “Clear guidance for UAS operations is needed to protect pilots and passengers. We’re pleased that the FAA is moving the rulemaking process forward, but this really can’t happen fast enough.”
Privacy issues also have been a concern when it comes to small UAS operations, but the FAA’s NPRM does not address those issues. Instead, the FAA has said the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) will engage with the FAA and stakeholders to address privacy issues.
In the meantime, the White House issued a presidential memorandum dealing with drone privacy issues shortly before the FAA’s Feb. 15 announcement. The memo requires federal agencies to make their policies and procedures consistent with limits on data collection and use as well as the retention and dissemination of information collected by drones. It also gives the NTIA and Commerce Department 90 days to create a “framework for privacy, accountability and transparency.”
In announcing the new rules for small commercial drones, the FAA said it would seek input on whether to create a subset of rules for so-called “microlight” UAS weighing 4.4 pounds or less. The FAA suggested those aircraft might not require a UAS operator certificate but could be restricted to daytime line-of-site operations at altitudes of 400 feet or lower in Class G airspace. Those requirements are not part of the current proposed rule.
The agency is also seeking input on how the agency can further leverage the UAS test site program as well as plans for a UAS Center of Excellence designed to spur innovation.
The publication of the NPRM opens the way for the public to review and comment on the proposal, and AOPA will file formal comments in advance of the deadline set for 60 days from the date of publication in the Federal Register.
AOPA has long expressed concerns about safely integrating unmanned aircraft into the National Airspace System, insisting that commercial UAS be flown by an FAA-approved pilot or operator, have see-and-avoid capabilities, and be flown in compliance with current operating rules and airspace requirements.
In December 2014, Baker asked the House Aviation Subcommittee to reinforce the need for the FAA to expedite the rule governing commercial UAS operations and to address the reckless and careless operation of recreational UAS. In 2014, the FAA received nearly 200 pilot reports describing encounters with unmanned aircraft.
While the NPRM does not address recreational UAS operations, AOPA has asked the FAA to issue clear and definitive guidance for recreational operators, encourage manufacturers to include information on FAA guidance in their packaging materials, work with AOPA and remote control aircraft groups to conduct educational outreach, and publish guidance to help pilots file timely reports of reckless UAS operations.
End of AOPA article.
If you want the AOPA article go to
We are all free to comment but the rules usually end up how they are proposed
Wanted to share my learnings as thought it would help others.
Issue: my iPad mini worked fine with Foreflight but when I went to fly this weekend for a cross country lesson, the gps did not work.
Findings: It turns out that newer iPhones and Ipads DO have a built in GPS chip. However, on the iPad Mini the Wifi version does NOT have a GPS chip and only the cellular/Wifi version includes a GPS chip (this is unlike the normal wifi ipad which does have a GPS chips). The iPad mini Wifi version only gives you GPS when you are on Wifi via the Internet, if you arent on Wifi there is NO GPS capability. Regarding the iPad Mini with Wifi AND Cellular capability: Even if you are not using celluar via a plan, the GPS chip will work fine if you have the ipad mini, but you will have no GPS chip if you get the Wifi only version. Bottomline is you MUST have an iPad Mini with the celluar capbility if you want to get a GPS signal, even if the cellular capability is not being used. You need a GPS chip!
I also learned that any iPad, iPad Mini or iPhone that does contain a GPS chip, contains a chip that uses cell towers to locate the GPS coordinate. This chip is not as accurate or as sensitive as a standard GPS which uses satellite. For flying, the iPad GPS chip if it can't locate a cell tower cannot provide GPS whereas a standard GPS can with much better performance.
The Solution: After researching I found 3 options I considered, in order of quality and expense (funny how those 2 go hand in hand).
Option 1: By a Stratus receiver that has GPS that connects to iPad mini via Bluetooth and Foreflight. This option gives you great GPS signal for Foreflight and also gives you real-time Foreflight weather and even shows you on radar other aircraft near you! Expensive at around 700-800+ but something I will consider someday flying in the Bay Area.
Option 2: By a Bad Elf Pro GPS (Foreflight recommended and found many pilots even commerical who use it). It connects to iPad Mini via bluetooth and provides great GPS with around 16 hours of battery life and is rechargeable. I just ordered on Amazon for around $139 and will be using this with my iPad Mini soon (also on some of the aviation vendor sites for $10 more). Reviews have all been excellent from many sources I investigated.
Option 3: I had my iPhone turned on and turned on "Personal Hotspot" and connected my iPad Mini to it when flying Sunday. This let me effectively be on a wifi network (linking to my phone) and gave me a GPS signal. But it was weak and did not work reliable when flying Sunday. I could not find my location with the blinking dot but it did show me the distance to the nearest airport in Foreflight. No cost with this last option except phone data charges.
Option 2 gave me best combination of excellent GPS/nav capabilities with lowest cost. BTW there is a newer Bad Elf Pro+. The + gets you a GPS using the Russian satellites too similar to my Garmin Running Watch and Garmin Backpacking Nav. Has a few other bells and whistes but it's another $100 and not needed for me.
Hope this helps others. If any questions let me know.
Have fun flying...