Nov 29th

Continued Operational Safety Report for LSA (including Trikes) by FAA

By Abid Farooqui

Here is the report after 2014. Good read and trends on what is going on with safety and LSA including trikes in the US market. Have a read and feel free to discuss and comment

Nov 25th

Airborne 582 SLSA for sale

By Rebekah Sharf

AIRBORNE XT SLSA 582 TUNDRA • $25,000 • FOR SALE $25,000OBO, Airborne XT582, 315 hours, TBO 8/15, New BRS 11/14, Lynx helmets, removable winter windshield, upgraded solid axles, trainer bars and back seat steering, LED strobe excellent condition, maintained by Aircore Aviation in Arlington, stored in temperature controlled hangar, flies in northwest Washington (less UV than the southern states). •  located Seattle, WA USA • Telephone: 3606470960 email


Nov 20th


By Todd Halver

DELTA JET 2 DEALER DEMO! • WAY BELOW MARKET • Don't wait months for another trike - purchase this 85 hour fully-loaded dealer demo Delta Jet 2! Rotax 100hp 912 ULS engine, Cheval 12.4M wing, Full Engine Cover, MGL Avionics Xtreme EFIS and Apple iPad, MGL Avionics V6 VHF Transceiver, Sandia STX 165R Mode A/C Transponder, BRS 1050 Ballistic Recovery System, Aveo Engineering PowerBurst 3-in-1 Navigation /Position /Strobe LED Lights, AEROLEDS Microsun LED Landing Light, FLYCOM Helmets, Custom Aircraft Cover and more! Free East Coast Delivery! • VISIT MY WEBSITE • Contact Todd Halver located WinstonSalem, NC USA • Telephone: 336 558-6800 for pricing.

Nov 9th

Could a more hybrid delta wing (some rigidity & added-control surfaces) be in the future for trikes?

By Tony Castillo

Prandtl-D Aircraft by NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center, in Edwards, CA, could this be the future for some of our trikes?


Oct 30th

"chu are in a lot off trobble" ( second bit, not first bit)

By monty stone

where was i, oh yeah, the hit swung me down off the road into the rocks, cactus and pucker brush carelessly left alongside my landing strip.  as soon as my neurons advised me i was gonna die i activated plan 'ohshit' and gassed it hard (at least as hard as a 377 rotax can gas it!), and swung hard right up onto the road just in time to smack my right ( hitherto undamaged) wing into another sign planted alongside the other side of the road , also cunningly desguised as 'alluminum cactus' . (now, in my defense i was only 58yrs old so my logic systems hadn't kicked into the maturity phase, like they are now). i have this entire debacle recorded on tape, boy i used really bad language at that time! anyhow i taxied to the intersection where my buds, ( with my fresh underwear, etc.) showed up followed by an orange pickup with a big orange gumball light on the roof flashing away. you guessed it, the CAA commandante, anxious to meet me!. "why you land on the road", " chu are in a lot off trobble" he demanded. with unusual mental alacrity i answered, " commandante, sir, i had an in-flight emergency, both my wings started to fall off". i showed him both wings with bent and twisted bolluminum tubing, with ripped bedsheet everywhere. he acknowleged that there was indeed reason not to be  flying this device. (there also was a minimum $50 landing fee at the airport.). he said "can you taxi it? i readily agreed, he continued " but chu most wait for a police car, or" chu will be in a lot off trobble." i took the wing off tied it with bits of wire alongside the keel, then found the c/g so far aft the nose wheel was in the air, so i tied a 5g fuel can (full) under the rotax. the cop car showed up, a nice one (for the time) it had all the doors and headlights etc, (this was before hillery's husband came up with nafta and equipped all mexican cops with new white dodge pick ups. i'm proud to be american!). our motley crew set off for town, 9miles, the cop car, lights and siren blareing, a wingless ultralight follwed by a string of gringos on bikes and atv,s.  spectators didn't seem to be unduely alarmed by this spectacle, so it must occur frequently. the cop would't go quite fast enough and my prop was getting really close to his shiny trunk lid, i had no brakes so did the only thing i could. i shouted " onderlay! onderlay". i dunno what it means but he did speed up a bit. i only had rudder one way due to the wing laid alongside it so, with the by now fairly strong crosswind  control was 'iffy' , but eventually we made it to the motel, where i thanked him and gave him $20 for his skilfull 'herdsmanship. and it was a lot less than a new prop and a cop's trunk lid, yep, i woulda bin " in a lot off trobble" monty












Oct 30th

"chu are in a lot off trobble" ( part one, first bit, duh, me)

By monty stone

i've ridden dirt bikes in baja, mexico, since 1984, so when in 1993 i announced that i was 'gonna fly my weedhopper ultralight down the 1000mile peninsular no-one figured it worth advising a'gin it. (my mind's made up, don't confuse me with facts). after all, haveing an IQ and hat size similar explains the logic behind this decision. my 'hopper' was duly tied on top of a trailer load of bikes and atv,s with the 2 blade prop secured horizontally to avoid damaging any over-passes on the 1500mile road trip from seattle to san felipe, baja, mex. on arrival in san felipe we unloaded the trailer and while my buddies were busy quaffing mexican beer and watching i 'erected' (it did take close to four hours, shoulda sought medical advice!) my weedhopper' flying surfaces, pretty simple no aelerons to screw with  and with no parts left over decided to test fly it. the temps were arround 100deg f and the black anodized tubing almost too hot to touch the assembly was not fun. my chosen runway was a patch of fairly flat dirt along side some BIG bushes, behind the motel. i never saw the large rock but my left wheel did, the hit swung me (and the plane) hard left into a really big bush. now that 8ft mexican scrub bush had never been attacked by a big prop spun by a 30hp 377 rotax before so amidst a big shower of woodchips etc, i contined the takeoff. my admiring buds renamed my plane 'weedwacker'. (refer to the single digit IQ for this decision!) i wobbled arround the area, unknowingly exciting the local CAA commondante, who, i learned was 'anxious to meet the 'flying gringo'. i landed and paid a local $5 to hide my plane behind a big wall alongside the motel. the next morning my buds and i lined up on the blacktop road outide the motel, which, though rougher than the dirt didn't have bushes and rocks on it. BUT it did have lots of wires overhead, about every 30ft. i couldn't see a gap big enough to squeeze through so swung hard right between two big wooden utility poles and  over relatives of the bush that i had attacked the day before. i climbed up to 300ft, to clear the 299ft sand hill alongside the road and pointed the sharp end south. i had a cb radio strapped to my leg, and with typical msms (monty stone's moronic stupidity) had not tried it with the engine running. couldn't hear a thing, except 'seized up!'. well. my buds were carrying my spare underware etc on their bikes, so i had to try a rescue! by now the breeze was picking up off the water, sea of cortez, gulf of mexico,  so i set it down on the spur road signposted 'the san felipe international airport'. i was kind-of target oriented on the center line of the rather narrow road, completely ignoring the powerlines alongside the road . (i hadn't seen em, more MS.) I set down. that's when a big road-sign, cunningly disguised as an alluminium cactus reached out and grabbed my left wing tip. cont....

Oct 12th

LSA Repairman: Maintenance or Inspection Rating? by Carol Carpenter

By Paul Hamilton

For those who are iterested in the course:


The Light-Sport Rule establishes a new repairman certificate with two ratings (Ref: 14CFR §65.107): Inspection and Maintenance.

There is only one repairman certificate, but two ratings: The “repairman (light sport) with an Inspection rating” (LSRI) and the “Repairman (light-sport aircraft)—Maintenance rating.” (LSRM) The inspection rating is available by attending a 16 hour, two day repairman course. The maintenance rating is only available by attending a much longer 80-120 hour Repairman course.



Experimental Light Sport Aircraft

As a sport pilot flying an ELSA for pleasure, you only need the 16 hour inspection course. Classes are normally schedule on the weekend and offered across the country Successful completion of  the LSA Repairman Inspection course, allows you to apply for an FAA Repairman Certificate for any  Experimental Light Sport Aircraft  which you own or one you purchase  in the future. (Note: this does not apply to Experimental Amateur Built)  Once the aircraft is listed on your repairman certificate, you are allowed to do the condition inspection each year. You do not have to be the builder. You simply have to have successfully completed the 16 hour training course for LSA Repairman Inspection in the assigned “class” of the selected

course (airplane, weight shift, powered parachute, glider, gyroplane, or lighter-than-air). There is no expiration date on the certificate of course completion. You do not need to currently own an ELSA.

 (There isn’t any authorization required to perform the maintenance on experimental aircraft.) However, if you fly two different class of aircraft, say, airplane and weight shift, then you will have to take one 16 hour inspection course for weight shift and another 16 hour inspection course for airplane.

The good news: There are no renewal requirements for your certificate, once you earn it, and there are no limits on how many aircraft in the select class you may own. Additionally, all maintenance is already allowed. There is no requirement for a repairman certificate to perform maintenance on your E-LSA. This is important because after your ELSA is certificated you  will have one year until you need to have completed the required repairman inspection course. (It is easy to schedule a 16 hour inspection course at your location. Rainbow Aviation travels with the course based on demand.)


Special Light Sport Aircraft


Owners of a Special Light Sport Aircraft (SLSA) must attend at 15 day workshop (15 day/120 hrs).  Successful completion of the Repairman Maintenance Rating allows you to perform the maintenance, the annual condition inspection, and the 100 hour inspections (required only for aircraft used for hire)  on any Special Light Sport Aircraft and or any Experimental Light Sport Aircraft in the assigned “class” of the selected Course. This is an FAA approved workshop and an FAA certificate is issued after successful completion. You do not have to own the aircraft. You do not even need to be a pilot and you may charge for your services.


Unlike the Repairman-Inspection rating, a person with the Repairman-Maintenance rating can perform maintenance and inspections on anyone’s S-LSAor E-LSA and charge for his/her services. For this reason, he is sometimes referred to as a “Sport

Mechanic.” There are no prerequisites for the training course. In fact, a Repairman with a

Maintenance rating need not even be a pilot.

However, the Repairman with a maintenance rating may not perform the annual inspection on amateur built aircraft or standard certificated aircraft- only Light Sport Aircraft.

The S-LSA repairman maintenance rating training course is designed using modules of

instruction that can be customized to the specific class of S-LSA the repairman will

maintain. There are three required “core” modules, and five elective “class” modules. The minimum training time for each class is:

Airplane: 120 hours, Weight Shift: 104 hours,

and Powered Parachute: 104 hours. Participants may take the three core modules and add an “elective.”

Below is a list of the modules pertinent to the

various class of LSA.

Core Modules:

Module 1 (16 hours) Regulatory

Module 2 (35 hours) Airframe

Module 3 (45 hours) Engine

Electives Modules:

Module 4 (24 hours) Airplane class

Module 5 (19 hours) Weight Shift

Module 6 (19 hours) Powered Chute

Module 7 (64 hours) Lighter-than-air

Module 8 (40 hours) Glider

For example, if a person attends a course to

obtain a Repairman-Maintenance rating to work on airplanes, he/she would take a 120-hour course consisting of modules 1, 2, 3, and 4. If he later wanted authorization to work on weight shift aircraft, he would only need to take module number 5. If he was only interested in weight shift, he would take 1,2,3,and 5. Unfortunately, if someone takes a 16-hour course before taking a 120-hour course he/she does not get any credit for having taken the 16-hour course. Interested in a new career? The job opportunities for the repairman with a maintenance rating are huge. Light Sport manufacturers and dealers in the light sport industry will all require a LSRM. Additionally, flight schools will need LSRM for the required 100 hour inspections. Not to mention the opportunities for new Light Sport Maintenance facilities. Also, there are other little known- advantages available to a Repairman with a maintenance rating:

The repairman may also keep a portfolio of

his work and apply for authorization to take theA&P written and practical exams for general aviation after working in the field for 30 +months under his/her own supervision.

Additionally, the LSRM is a stepping-stone to the DAR (Designated Airworthiness Representative.)

For more information on the repairman

courses or transitioning your ultralight before

the deadline visit Rainbow Aviation Services

website at or email, call Carol Carpenter

at 530-824-0644.



Sep 21st

Techniques for 180 back to airport with power-out on ascent

By Glade Montgomery

It seems that it's pretty common for engines to fail right during the ascent stage, very shortly after takeoff and when at only a few hundred feet (or, of course, sometimes less).  Based on this, I thought it might prudent to simulate the circumstance by going into my normal steep climb, then immediately dropping into idle, and at various altititudes, to see what was the mininum AGL at which I can manage a 180 back to the runway (or at least to the grass that is parallel to it), and to see what technique would be most effective. 

What I found is I can do it within about 350 AGL, so long as I use a particular and somewhat dramatic technique.  Immediately upon loss of thrust, I pull in hard on the bar, pulling the nose downward from its formerly somewhat steep pitch upward, to a point where it seems I am staring almost straight at the ground.  It's in this extreme nose down configuration (and before significant downward speed builds) that I can rapidly rotate the aircraft around back toward the runway.  If done just right, I can complete the rotation (and round out from the resulting dive) with a good margin of safety (in truth, while doing this I pretend like the floor is 100' higher than it really is, so I have an added margin of safety). 

I've tried other methods.  When pulling the nose down to just normal glide pitch and turning with various degrees of bank, I always lose significantly more altitude (by the time the turn is completed) than via the method above described.  Based on this, I suspect the best method may be the one I discovered.  It's counter-intuitive: when the ground is the very thing you are afraid of (and altitude is your most precious commodity), dive for it (and while turning).  But, within a particular altitude range while on first ascent, I suspect it may be just the ticket. 

This "dive-for-the-ground" technique also has the benefit of reducing any chance of stall (and/or stall/spin) to just about zero.  I believe it's well known that when seeking to minimize altitude loss in these kinds of turns (by keeping the nose up), pilots often lose sufficient speed, and the aircraft stalls fatally.  When you instead dive for the ground, any possibility of that mistake is pretty far removed. 

I am curious if anyone else has tried this technique?  Have your tried this and others, and yet found others are better?  Or have you found similar to me? 

Sep 12th

What do we call ourselves to avoid mid air collisions?

By Paul Hamilton


I have been using "Light Sport Trike" for reporting in the pattern at non towered airports with last three digits of my N number when there are more than one trike in the pattern. Short, sweet everyone is used to it.


I remember someone using "Delta" which is almost more descriptive. Almost ready to use "Light Sport Delta".


 What do others use announcing in the pattern for trikes?  This is a project I have been working on which I finally released to the local FAA FSDO and the airport manager. Would like to get some descriptive terms for trikes  as I move forward implementing this to hopefully the highest levels.


Any one is welcome to use this for their airport. It has been well received. Most CFI's and pilots have the same concern.

What descriptive phraseology would standardize us triker's?


Here it is:


Recommendations for safer operations at CXP reducing the probability of  midair collisions.




To increase safety at CXP airport, it is recommended that aircraft descriptive phraseology be implemented with CTAF so pilots can identify the type (profile and speed) of aircraft conducting operations at CXP. This will decrease the possibility of midair collisions.


This can be accomplished by promoting more descriptive phraseology of aircraft types with the AF/D, AWOS, airport website, utilizing posters at the airport, handouts to students and pilots during their flight review, and CFI's/pilot's simply asking for the aircraft type if not provided with radio transmissions. Additionally having two safety meetings, first with active CFI's and second pilots operating at the airport at the direction of the FAAST Team.


Although this first step is targeted specifically at the non-towered airport in Carson City (CXP), the goal is to implement these procedures nationally and be incorporated into FAA recommendations/procedures. This is a paradigm shift for many pilots and CFI's at non towered airports.


The problem will be defined, best practices discussed, examples provided, phraseology suggested and specific implementation steps recommended.


Profile of Midair Collisions


Studies of midair collisions reveal certain definite warning patterns. It may be surprising to learn that nearly all midair collisions occur during daylight hours and in VFR conditions. Perhaps not so surprising is that the majority happen within five miles of an airport, in the areas of greatest traffic concentration, and usually on warm weekend afternoons when more pilots are doing more flying.


Not What You Might Expect

Also surprising, perhaps, is the fact that the closing speed (rate at which two aircraft come together) is relatively slow, usually much slower than the airspeed of either aircraft. In fact, the majority of in-flight collisions are the result of a faster aircraft overtaking and hitting a slower plane.

Statistics on 105 in-flight collisions that occurred from 1964 to 1968 show that 82 percent had convergence angles associated with one aircraft overtaking another. Specifically, 35 percent were from 0 to 10 degrees - straight from behind. Only 5 percent were from a head-on angle. These numbers, plus the fact that 77 percent occurred at or below 3,000 feet (with 49 percent at or below 500 feet) imply accurately that in-flight collisions generally occur in the traffic pattern and primarily on final approach. Collisions occurring enroute generally are at or below 8,000 feet and within 25 miles of an airport.


Above "Profile of Midair Collisions" exert from FAA document

 How to Avoid a Mid Air Collision - P-8740-51

Communication safety deficiencies at CXP and non-ATC operations


There are two basic communication problems for operations at non-ATC airports.


·       First, there are no requirements for radio use at non ATC airports. This is a known safety deficiency, but this issue will not be addressed in this recommendation. This document will address increasing safety by reducing midair collision probability for those using radios.


·       Second, there is little official guidance, or published procedures that are utilized for safe operations at non-ATC airports for pilots using radios. Lacking any guidance, many use ATC phraseology at non-ATC airports. This is unsafe for a number of reasons that will be described here. Safe operating procedures and phraseology with ATC is completely different than self announce procedures at non towered airports.


It is easiest to explain the basic safety deficiency with radio use with some actual examples:


Example 1.

I was in my light-sport aircraft taking off and climbing at 70 knots and hear "One two three Alpha, (generic call signs used here) ten miles  out, will be entering a downwind". For typical operations, I would be well ahead of most aircraft while conducting closed pattern operations. I announce cross wind and then after my mid field downwind announcement I hear " One two three Alpha, downwind, no contact". So in other words,  he must be coming up in back of me and he cannot see me. Soon to my right and slightly above a jet passes closer than I like, especially if he cannot see me.  I responded "have a visual on the jet and will follow you in".


So here we have a jet pilot using the ATC N number as his complete "call sign" phraseology to identify himself with no indication of type of aircraft/profile to look for or speed to anticipate his whereabouts. N number only, as he usually does with ATC after his initial contact where the type of aircraft, profile and speed is communicated and established. This was an unnecessary close call and almost a midair collision. If he had simply said "jet" or "Cessna citation" I would have altered my course closer to the runway with a tighter pattern and expected him to be there when he was so I could be looking for him to use basic "see and avoid" techniques. Any indication that this was a fast aircraft besides just his N Number would have avoided this incident and a possible midair collision.


Example 2.

I overheard this conversation over the radio while flying. A CFI I know was doing pattern work at CXP airport. He reports mid field, downwind and I hear someone report "Carson traffic, Cessna two three bravo, starting a forty five for a downwind". No indication of type (model) of aircraft or speed. This appeared to be a normal sequencing into the pattern. Soon after, I heard "Two three bravo, downwind". The CFI  immediately said "Skyhawk, one nine Charlie, just past midfield downwind no contact".  The reply was "Two three bravo, no contact, will do a 360 for spacing" apparently trying to stay in back of  the Skymaster one nine Charlie.  Next I hear the "Skyhawk turning base" and the other aircraft announces "on base, no contact". He must have blasted by the Skyhawk because the Skyhawk said shortly after, "Have a visual on the twin because you just went by me". Knowing now this was a twin since the Skyhawk identified it as such makes sense.  It was a twin traveling much faster . The twin asked the Skyhawk "I did not see you how close was I?"  The Skyhawk responds "about 400 feet".


Again,  we have a fast aircraft using ATC procedures at a non towered airport, N number only, as he usually does with ATC after his initial contact (where ATC gets his aircraft type/speed). Again, there was another unnecessary close call, almost a mid air collision. If he had simply said "twin" the Skyhawk could have known where to look or altered course to avoid this incident. Additionally the twin should have been more situationally  aware and done a wider pattern rather than try to get in tight with the slower Cessna.  Again, anything besides just his N number would have been helpful to the Skyhawk with this incident.


Above, we have two examples of actual incidents where the incoming pilots were following the intent of ATC AIM communication procedures that resulted in near misses where better descriptive phraseology of the aircraft type/speed would have provided better safety for both pilots, their passengers, and the general public on the ground.


Pilots and CFI's using ATC practices at non towered airports


Another example will be used to emphasize the problem of how engrained ATC procedures are at non towered airports:


There were two aircraft flying around the pattern doing touch and goes at CXP. We were keeping track of each other and coordinating very well. I was reporting my aircraft model as "Sling", the other aircraft was reporting their identity as only the full "N number". It looked like a typical Cessna high wing Skyhawk or similar. I was training a student getting ready for his first solo when someone came on the CXP  CTAF 123.00 and said:


"No one knows what a Sling is, please use your tail number".


This really surprised me. Saying my N number would not provide any more information on the aircraft type nor provide any greater safety in this situation.


Following this incident, I conducted research to try to understand the thought process and what would motivate someone who was not flying to exhibit such behavior on a CTAF to someone who was flying. I called the local FSDO and discussed this issue. I called FAA safety experts in Oklahoma City and discussed this issue. I talked with seasoned CFI's and pilots. The best explanation I could get as to why some in the industry only uses the N number and not the more logical type of aircraft to identify themselves was simply "it is a habit because what is what I have always done".

Some CFI's believe it is good practice for operating with ATC. Again, operations at non towered airports and ATC is completely different and both should be practiced/trained independently.


For non ATC operations it is best if everyone knows the aircraft type/profile and speed so they can more easily predict where the aircraft is and what to look for to make sure and not confuse it with another aircraft.


The problem is that almost all the AIM Chapter 4, Air Traffic Control procedures is for towered operation and pilots are typically trained to use this phraseology for non-ATC. There is little guidance in the AIM for non towered operations except AIM 4-1-9  recommending some phraseologies that include the model and full N number. This is better than just the N number in the incidence/examples above, but from typical ATC procedures and experience, pilots are dropping the model of aircraft for non ATC operations.  Unfortunately a number does not help anybody in the pattern identify the type/profile/speed of aircraft for safe operation.


I cannot count the number of times I have witnessed someone, including me, who is identifying the wrong aircraft when only the N number is being used and no aircraft type is given.  


Current practices used for non-towered air traffic control


Research of existing practices, presented below, provide the  basis for using primarily the type of aircraft and second the N number so it can be easily identified by other aircraft in the pattern or in other non ATC aircraft operations.


Here is some background and research on this subject:


There are a couple of FAA Advisory Circulars AC 90-66A, AC 91-42F both which are older than 12 years on this subject. Both are before the growing light-sport aircraft/sport pilot rule was enacted. Both of these are little help for modern communication phraseology practices.


FAA AIM 4-1-9 has some recommended self announce practices that use the model and full N number.  This is commonly used and appropriate especially if there are more than one type of aircraft, such as a Skyhawk in the pattern training. Typically the N number is shortened to the last three characters. Unfortunately, since everyone has the habit of using only the last three characters of the N number for ATC operations, typically the type of aircraft is dropped to shorten the call and we are left with no type of aircraft for visual reference and speed.



FAA publication "RUNWAY SAFETY A Best Practices Guide to Operations and Communications" has a section, page 13 and 14, for non-towered airports and it recommends specifically:

Beginning of FAA brochure quote:

Radio Communications Format

● Identify the airport you are calling

● State your aircraft make, model and call sign (you may also want to identify your aircraft color)

● State your position and your intentions

● Repeat the airport name at the end of your transmission

End of FAA brochure quote

Actual brochure:


Here the FAA have added make and possibly color to the AIM 4-1-9 so other aircraft can identify your aircraft. I think color is helpful if you are not the standard white. Red, yellow, blue, black, green are distinctive colors.


AOPA Air Safety Institute (ASI) Safety Advisor Operations and Proficiency No. 3 provides solid advice on this topic. The following is quoted when it comes to their recommendations on phraseology Page 5 which I support and agree.


Beginning of AOPA quote:

• When you transmit, begin by stating the name of the airport, followed by the model of your aircraft (Skyhawk, Cherokee, Bonanza, etc.) and the last three alphanumerics of the aircraft N number.

• It's common practice for pilots of homebuilt and other aircraft certificated in the experimental category to identify their airplanes as “experimental.” There is a tremendous performance differential between a Lancair and a Baby Ace. Likewise, an RV-4 silhouette is altogether different from an Acro Sport. In order to aid identification and predict performance, ASF recommends that all traffic-pattern announcements include the aircraft type.


It’s more important for pilots to know what kind of airplane you’re flying than to know your complete call sign. Knowing the model of airplane will help other pilots plan their pattern flight relative to you.

The abbreviated version of your call sign takes up less of valuable air time. It’s also easier for other pilots to remember a short call sign if they need to request an update on your position.

End of AOPA quote


Complete AOPA document:


It is inferred by AOPA that both the call sign and experimental can both be eliminated (except if more than one model is in the pattern, then the last three digits of the N number/call sign should be used to keep track of more than one model aircraft). Specifics will be discussed in the call to action section later in this document.


Oshkosh Operations:

Experienced ATC volunteers control aircraft visually for operations of many aircraft coming into Oshkosh.  It should be noted that these procedures have evolved over the years for visual aircraft identification.


There is allot of dialog but some highlights will be provided below relevant to visual ID of aircraft.

Beginning of Oshkosh quotes:

Aircraft identification type & color


·        If the controller is familiar with your type, we may be more specific.


·        "Taildragger" - Conventional landing gear (with tail wheel).

·        "Tricycle Gear" - Nosedragger

·        "High wing taildragger" or "Red and white low wing" or "Yellow biplane" or even "Low wing with wig wag lights", etc.  

If you reach Fisk and ATC has not authorized you to proceed beyond Fisk to the airport, contact ATC on 120.7 stating your type, "Red and White Skyhawk", your location, etc.....

From this outdoor vantage point, utilizing binoculars and a radio the Fisk controller team uses their combined ATC experience to locate you, visually identify your type and possibly color, etc...

End of Oshkosh quotes

Complete EAA website :


Oshkosh FAA  2015 NOTUM quote

Controllers will call your aircraft by color and type (if known).


Note the results here for Oshkosh aircraft identification is type and color. No N numbers are used for visual identification.



Call to action recommendations to increase safety at CXP


1. Add a statement on Carson AWOS to ask all pilots to provide their type of aircraft when communicating at CXP for the safety of all.


2.   Add a simple statement in the CXP AF/D  to ask all pilots to provide their type of aircraft when communicating at CXP for the safety of all.


3. Call a FAAST safety meeting of active flight instructors operating at CXP to discuss this new safety initiative and discuss any fine tuning that should be accomplished. Follow with a pilot meeting.


4. Posters at the airport


5. CFI's provide handouts to students learning and handouts to pilots getting a flight review.


6. In practice, if you hear only the N number, ask for aircraft type (I have done this a number of times and some get bent out of shape but I consider it necessary for safety).


7. Add a simple statement in the Carson City airport website to ask all pilots to provide their type of aircraft as top priority for communicating at CXP for the safety of all.


Recommended Aircraft Type Phraseology Examples


In implementing specific phraseology there are many variations of which will be controversial and debated past our time. Please understand our common goal - In our unified recommendations for safety, what is the best priority of Phraseology to obtain the optimum level of safety. We all may drop something, so what is the priority to make sure we provide and what should we drop based on priority and simply reducing the less said to provide  the type, color, N number , speed, or what ever, the first step is to 1.

what for the  achnology  It comes down to the best priority for safetyThe most descriptive would be





Last three alphanumerics should be added if there are two similar aircraft types broadcasting:


What is the best description of your aircraft to help pilots recognize your profile and speed?


Specific common model names

Citation Jet, Twin Cessna, Twin Barron, Skyhawk, Skycatcher, Zodiac, Warrior, Decathlon, Tee Six, R V, Sling (perhaps Light-Sport Sling)


General types

Tail Dragger, Seaplane, Light Sport Trike, Helicopter, Biplane


If you do not know the type simply ask. Some examples with more detailed explanation.

·       Sling - Low wing light sport airplane

·       Light Sport Trike - Powered hang glider some call ultralight

·       RV - Red Tail dragger


·       T Six - war bird